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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 3, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Anil Kumar*, Nidhi Sharma, Manveen Bhardwaj, and Sumitra Singh
    Abstract: A variety of animal models have been developed to study the effect of antiepileptic drugs. These models provide the means of inducing changes and causing alterations in neural function which may lead to epileptogenesis. Kindling is a lasting change in brain function caused by repeated stimulation resulting an increased seizure duration and progressive intensification of seizure activity. The kindling model is widely used by investigators to provide insights into epileptogenesis. Kindled seizures can be induced in a number of animal species by electrical stimulation of brain as well as by chemical convulsants. The repeated administration of convulsant agents at sub-threshold concentrations is known as chemical kindling. This phenomenon can be achieved using convulsants like GABAergic antagonists, neurotoxicants, local anaesthetics etc. Chemical kindling has attracted the interest of many investigators as a model to study the effects of multiple seizures on the brain. The present review is an attempt to compare the various chemical models of kindling.
    Research Article
    Mikhayil Hakhverdyan*, Guldasta Mamadatokhonova, and Sandor Belák
    The aim of this work was to develop a sensitive and specific real-time PCR diagnostic assay for the rapid detection and identification of bovine adenoviruses (BAdVs) in cattle. A TaqMan real-time PCR assay, capable of simultaneous detection of nine out of ten BAdV serotypes (species) belonging to the genera Atadenovirus and Mastadenovirus, was developed. The oligonucleotide primers and probe were selected from conserved sequences flanking the genome region coding for the hexon protein. DNA from BAdV serotypes 1 to 10 was isolated by standard phenol-chloroform extraction. Standard curve using a ten-fold dilution series of BAdV-8 positive DNA template was generated. The sensitivity of assay was determined using BAdV-8 cloned PCR product and the detection limit was five copies of viral genome equivalents. The efficiency of PCR assay was 97%. BAdV-2 was the only serotype, which was not detected. BAdV-7 has shown low amplification rates and fluorescence due to four mismatches in the probe region. In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay presented here is expected to be a useful and practical alternative tool to the traditional diagnostic methods like virus isolation, ELISA or conventional PCR for the simple and rapid diagnosis of adenovirus infections in Bovidae.
    Diaz EM, Sánchez-Elordi E, Santiago R, Vicente C*, and Legaz ME
    Lichens are specific symbiotic associations between photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria and heterotrophic fungi forming a double entity in which both components coexist. Specificity required for the lichen establishment can be defined in this context as the preferential, but not exclusive, association of a biont with another, since the algal factor susceptible to be recognized is an inducible protein. Recognition of compatible algal cells is performed by specific lectins produced and secreted by the potential mycobiont. Some lectins from phycolichens and cyanolichens are glycosylated arginases which bind to an algal cell wall receptor, identified as a a-1, 4-polygalactosylated urease. However, other ligands exist which bind other lectins specific for mannose or glucose. This implies that, after recognition of a potential, compatible partner, other fungal lectins could determine the final success of the association. Since the fungus can parasitize non - recognized partners during the development of the association, the success after the first contact needs of a set of algal cells, the number of which was sufficient to prevent that the death of a certain number of them makes fail the symbiosis. Fungal lectins act as chemo tactic factors in such a way that algae and cyanobacteria move towards the hyphae, to acquire that critical size of the colony, by means of successive contractions and relaxation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in absence of any motile appendages.
    Rachel M. Chalmers*, Kristin Elwin, Charlotte Featherstone, Guy Robinson, Nigel Crouch, and Angharad P. Davies
    To investigate the applicability of diagnostic assays for detection of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum throughout the course of natural zoonotic infections, and to compare oocyst loads with clinical presentation, sequential stool samples from two naturally infected, volunteer siblings were tested by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (mZN), auramine phenol (AP), and immunofluorescence microscopy, enzyme immune assays (EIA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Cryptosporidium was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy, EIA and qPCR but not by mZN or AP in soft stools passed after acute clinical episodes of cryptosporidiosis. During recuperation, samples were positive only by IFM and qPCR of DNA extracted directly from stools; the latter provided the highest diagnostic index and intermittent detection up to 18 days after recovery from all symptoms. Additionally, quantification by qPCR correlated with symptom severity and clinical presentation in the two patients studied.
    Short Communication
    Bueno Franco RM*, Branco N, Trainotti Amaro BC, Neto RC, and da Silva Fiuza VR
    Data about the presence of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia genotypes in water samples from Brazil are scarce. We investigate the occurrence of these pathogenic protozoa in raw water samples of Atibaia and Capivari Rivers which are the main water supplies of Campinas city (Southeast Brazil). These rivers show high degree of eutrophication. All samples were subjected to membrane filtration technique using 45°C heated elution solution followed by immunofluorescence and nested PCR. Recovery efficiencies were estimated using water aliquots spiked with Color Seed®. Average recovery efficiencies of spiked samples in Atibaia River were 18.0% ± 18.4 and 74.0% ± 22.1 for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. For Capivari River, recovery efficiencies were 29.7% ± 24.6 and 65.1% ± 33.0 for oocysts and cysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 42.8% samples from Atibaia River and in 85.7% samples from Capivari River, whereas Giardia cysts were present in 100% of samples in both rivers using immunofluorescence. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum as well as G. duodenalis subgroup BIII in Atibaia River. All samples from Capivari River were PCR negative, probably due to inhibitors. These findings suggest anthroponotic and zoonotic contamination of Atibaia River. The occurrence of these pathogenic protozoa in both rivers highlight the potential risk for human and animal health. Close monitoring of water quality of these rivers is highly recommended.
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