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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 3, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Carlos Hermosilla*, Anastasia Diakou, Vasileios Psychas, Liliana MR Silva, and Anja Taubert
    Abstract: Abomasal coccidiosis was diagnosed in two cross-breed adult sheep and one adult goat which died after a 3-week period of weight loss, anorexia and diarrhoea. Necropsies revealed an extremely edematous abomasal mucosa with a nodular surface and multiple focal areas of haemorrhagies. Histological examinations of affected abomasal mucosa showed numerous giant (up to 600 μm) coccidian macromeronts containing myriads of merozoites. These macromeronts were thick-walled and associated with hyperplasia of mucous neck cells, parietal cell atrophy, and moderate to intense lymphoplasmacytic inflammation that was centered on degenerated macromeront walls. Based on morphological characteristics, the macromeronts were identified as stages of Eimeria gilruthi, formerly known as Globidium, a coccidian parasite of uncertain taxonomic status historically associated with incidental coccidian abomasitis in sheep and goats. The current cases and the significant E. gilruthi-induced mucosal inflammation suggest that heavy abomasal E. gilruthi-infections should be considered as etiological cause of weight loss, anorexia, diarrhoea, and proliferative/haemorrhagic abomasitis in sheep.
    Rsearch Article
    Ganesh Tadepalli, Konduru Balakrishna, Harish Chandra Sripathy Murali*, and Harsh Vardhan Batra
    Abstract: Brucella spp. is pathogens of significant importance in livestock and a wide range of animal species worldwide. It is also known to cause brucellosis in humans, especially those works at proximity of infected animals. This review mainly focuses on animal and zoonotic brucellosis with an emphasis on epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, vaccination and finally control..
    Ladaporn Bodhidatta*, Boonchai Wongstitwilairoong, Patchariya Khantapura, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Sonam Wangchuk Arjun Raj Pant, Bhola Ram Shrestha, Shanti Regmi, Jyoti Ratna Dhakwa, Tsheten, Carl J. Mason, and Brett E. Swierczewski
    Objective: To assess prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children with acute diarrhea and non- diarrhea controls in Nepal and Bhutan.
    Methods: A case-control study of acute diarrhea etiology was conducted from 2006-2009 in Nepal and from 2011-2015 in Bhutan. Children aged from 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea and asymptomatic controls were enrolled. Commercial ELISA kits were used for detecting Cryptosporidium.
    Results: In Bhutan, Cryptosporidium was detected in 45/1716 (2.6%) of diarrhea cases and 27/1644 (1.6%) of non-diarrhea controls (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6). The overall prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in Bhutan was 2.1% and the prevalence was significantly higher in peri-urban (2.6%) than in rural areas (1.0%) (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.3). The highest prevalence detected was observed in children aged 24-47 months old and Cryptosporidium was associated with diarrhea in children 24-35 months old (OR=6.2, 95% CI 1.4-27.9). In Nepal, Cryptosporidium was significantly detected in 26/1200 (2.2 %) of cases compared to 10/1200 (0.8%) in controls (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.5); no significant difference of prevalence between peri-urban and rural areas (1.8% and 1.2%, respectively) was observed. Divided by age groups, the highest prevalence were from children of aged 24-35 and 36-47 months old. Increasing of cases of cryptosporidiosis was observed during the hot and monsoon seasons in both sites.
    Conclusion: The results of case-control studies in Nepal and Bhutan suggest that Cryptosporidium is prevalent and a significant pathogen. As the prevalence and burden of Cryptosporidium may be underestimated, additional surveillance and morbidity studies of cryptosporidiosis in Nepal and Bhutan are warranted.
    Review Article
    Dragomira S. Stoyanova*, Iliana A. Ivanova, and Todorka G. Vladkova
    Abstract: This article aims to summarize the benefits of nanobiotechnology in the fight against socially and economically significant bacterial species like Salmonella, starting from identification and diagnostics, drug delivery, increasing the efficiency of conventional antibiotics, just like and antibacterial ability of nanoparticles in their alone application. A special attention on the method of synthesis and trend of green technologies was paid. In an attempt to draw conclusions and dependencies, a systematic review on the mechanisms of action of various nanoparticles against Salmonella spp., clarified until nowadays is prepared.
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