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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 3, Issue 5
    Review Article
    Gitao CG*, Kihu S, and Maina SM
    Abstract: Peste des petit ruminants [PPR] is an acute or sub-acute febrile, highly contagious and often fatal disease of sheep, goats and wild small ruminants. The disease is characterized by fever, erosive stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia and causes serious economic losses in small ruminant's production. Peste des Petits Ruminants is endemic in Sub-saharan Africa extending to the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle Eastern countries and India. Peste des petit ruminants virus is transmitted by close contact between infected and non-infected susceptible animals, which is likely to occur in common grazing and watering points. Infected animals shed PPRV in exhaled air, in secretions, and excretions. In the field, a presumptive diagnosis of PPR can be made on the basis of clinical, pathological, and epizootiological findings. However laboratory confirmation of PPR may be performed through virus isolation, detection of viral antigens, nucleic acid isolation and sequencing; and detection of specific antibody in the serum. The Food and Agricultural organization and the Office International des Epizooties have developed a global eradication strategy aimed at control and eradication of the disease by the year 2030.
    Lygia M. Malvestio and Cibele M. Prado*
    Abstract: Dystrophin, an important protein of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental Chagas disease. It contributes to cell shape, mechanical resistance, contraction and force generation in cardiomyocytes. Dystrophin loss has been associated with end-stage cardiomyopathies and proposed as a common route for myocardial dysfunction and progression to advanced heart failure. One of the most intriguing aspects of chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy is the long delay after the initial infection to the cardiac manifestations. This has been partially explained by our group in previous studies demonstrating loss/reduction of dystrophin in mice experimentally infected with T. cruzi. The analysis of dystrophin expression showed significant reduction in the acute phase, with the reduction maintained up to the chronic phase. Inflammatory mechanisms could be involved in the dystrophin loss since inflammation has been shown to play a key role in the activation of proteases responsible for dystrophin degradation.
    Stuen S*
    Ticks may transmit pathogens to ruminants worldwide, creating diseases such as anaplasmosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis and theileriosis. In Europe, the most important tick vector is Ixodes ricinus and the most widespread tick-borne infection in animals is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. This infection causes tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants, a disease which may not only cause suboptimal growth, but may also have severe economic and welfare challenges in the sheep industry. In this review, different aspects of A. phagocytophilum infection in sheep will be presented.
    Gabriela Alvite, Cora Chalar, Claudio Martínez Debat, and Adriana Esteves*
    While still being considered a neglected disease by the WHO, cystic echinococcosis represents a major public health and economic issue in many countries. Echinococcus granulosus, its causative agent, presents several interesting traits, and its developmental process shows a remarkable biological plasticity. In the past twenty years, several molecules from have been characterized; more recently, significant progress has been made with genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. In this review, we focus on progress made in the knowledge and understanding of the role played by important molecules involved in development, regulation of gene expression (homeobox genes and miRNAs), and fatty acid binding proteins. These proteins, given the restricted lipid metabolism of this parasite, could be key molecules in controlling this disease.
    Case Report
    Claudia R. Rainho, Erika Moraes, Claudia AF Aiub, Andre Luiz Mencalha, and Israel Felzenszwalb*
    The use of strains of Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium with different metabolic capacities can indicate the class or classes of compounds present in an environmental sample and enable the diagnosis of the mutagenic activity of these pollutants adsorbed on particulate matter (PM) in the air. The sensitivity of Salmonella strains TA98NR, TA98/1, 8-DNP6, YG1021, and YG1024 to detect nitro compounds adsorbed on samples of PM 2.5 was compared from three sites in Rio de Janeiro city. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at three sites: one with light traffic and two with heavy traffic. The assays were performed in the presence of 10-50 μg/plate organic extracts with and without exogenous metabolization. The YG1021 and YG1024 strains showed the highest rev/m3 values, confirming their enhanced sensitivity. As YG1024 also demonstrated sensitivity to nitro and amino compounds, we suggest its use in research into environmental air contamination. Individual susceptibility to chemically induced cancer may be partly explained by genetic differences in the activation and detoxification of procarcinogens. Numerous polymorphisms of metabolism genes have been identified and their role in individual susceptibility to cancer has been observed. We evaluated genetic polymorphisms and risk of lung cancer in Reboucas tunnel workers (Rio de Janeiro – Brazil). Deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were detected in 100% of samples from control group. In exposure group, single deletions of GSTM1 or GSTT1 genes were detected in 72.74% (n=1) to 86.37% (n=13), respectively. Deletions of both genes were detected in 100% (n = 15). The same individual showed CYP1A1*2B polymorphism and deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gens. These results demonstrate that this individual exposed to occupational pollution at Reboucas tunnel, may have intensified metabolizing pollutants such as PAH, and have difficulties in detoxification of metabolites of these pollutants, increasing the risk of lung cancer development.
    Research Article
    Kelly Lameiro Rodrigues*, Fernanda Demoliner, Jose Antonio Guimarães Aleixo, and Jorge Adolfo Silva
    This study aimed to available the efficiency of procedures in use at an institutional foodservice unit for hygienization of vegetables that are served raw in salads and for the transport of bulk quantities of hot food preparations. The temperatures of the hot food preparations transported, as well as their holding time, were kept within the safety limits prescribed by Brazilian legislation from the end of the cooking process up to the end of the service period. However, high coli form counts of some vegetable samples after hygienization suggest that these procedures need to be adjusted.
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