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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Beatriz Basso* and Edgardo Moretti
    Chagas' disease, produced by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in Latin-America and is now being globalized through congenital, transfusional and transplantation transmission. In our laboratory we have developed an experimental mouse model of vaccination with non pathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli, that stimulates both innate and adaptive immunity, modulates the pattern of cytokines and soluble mediators, reduces parasite charge and mortality, with absence of histological and autoimmune lesions. This vaccine also protects guinea pigs and dogs, domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi. In this work we study the therapeutic effect of the vaccine. BALB/c albino mice were infected with trypomastigotes of T. cruzi and then vaccinated with fixed epimastigotes of T. rangeli, at different times post infection during acute period. The control group was only infected and inoculated with PBS. The course of infection and the pattern of specific immunoglobulin response (IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3) were analysed in both groups. The results showed that vaccinated mice had a better outcome of infection than controls, with significantly lower parasitemia and mortality rates. The level of specific IgG antibodies, measured by immunoenzymatic assay, was significantly higher in vaccinated animals from 15th to 40th post infection days (p= 0.02 – 0.003). IgG1 showed the same pattern of response (p= 0.02 - 0.005) whereas IgG2a and IgG2b levels were similar in both groups. In turn, IgG3 was significantly higher in vaccinated mice at the same period. In the chronic period (80th-120th days post infection) all measured isotypes did not show between-group differences. Otherwise, IgM was similar in both groups. In conclusion, as observed in preventive vaccination, this therapeutic approach of T. Rangeli vaccination triggers a high production of T. Cruzi reactive antibodies, favouring the clearance of circulating parasites.
    Getaneh Alemu and Tewodros Alemneh Engdaw*
    The study was conducted in Quara Woreda, Amhara Regional State, North western of Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis and to assess its associated risk factors. Out of the total 384 (198 female and 186 male) animals randomly selected and examined, 26 were found infected with trypanosomes with the overall prevalence of 6.77%. Among which, 1(0.26%) was found to be infected by T. congolense while 25(6.51%) were infected by T. vivax. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in between sexes of animals. The prevalence was higher in male (8.6%) as compared to female animals (5.05%).Regarding to age of animals, the highest prevalence was detected in adult (> 6 years) (8.16%) followed by young animals (2-6 years) (4.46%) while the lowest was in calves (< 2 years) (3.70%). The difference was statistically significant (> 0.05). Similarly, the prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cattle which were in poor body condition (21.92%) as compared to those in good body conditions (3.22%). In conclusion, this study confirmed that trypanosomes were prevalent and poses a serious threat to animals, especially, to cattle production in the area. Therefore, proper strategies ought to be designed and implemented to minimize the effect on livestock production and productivity.
    Amandeep Singh*and Jasneet Kaur
    Myiasis, the infestation of live vertebrate animals with dipteran larvae, is a common parasitic problem of livestock industry leading to massive economic losses to dairy farmers across the globe. Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a predominant fly species responsible for myiasis among domestic animals in tropical regions in the Old World. Synthetic compounds being used to control myiasis generally contaminate the dairy products with their residues leading to severe health hazards among humans. The increasing concern of pesticide accumulation in the environment has prompted researches to develop safer alternatives. Plant-derived materials being biodegradable have been currently evaluated as an alternate remedy in controlling arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The present study evaluated the efficacy of crude leaf extracts of Ricinus communis against larvae of C. bezziana by using dipping and thin film technique. The results indicated that the extracts had toxic effects on the larvae in both the techniques. It was concluded that the extracts of R. communis can effectively be used in bio-safe management of myiatic infestations among domestic animals caused by the larvae of C. bezziana.
    Review Article
    Gitao CG*, Mbindyo C, Omani R, and Chemweno V
    Sheep and Goat Pox is a highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats and in sheep, it is considered to be economically the most important in the tanning sector due to its slow and permanent scar formation. The causative agents, the capripox viruses (CaPV) are considered to be very host-specific and sheep and goat poxviruses are pathogenic exclusively for the ovine and caprine species respectively. The systemic signs include fever, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, lymphadenopathy, anorexia and depression. The skin lesions follow a typical pox virus development from a macule to papule and appear as small red patches usually around the mouth, on the head, under the tail and between the legs. The mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth, vulva and prepuce may be necrotic ulcerated and all the body lymph nodes are swollen and enlarged. The disease causes low mortality in indigenous breeds in enzootic areas as compared to exotic breeds but severe outbreaks occur in naïve sheep introduced in these areas, if there are intensive rearing practices or concurrent infections. Heavy economic losses in sheep pox outbreaks are due to the high mortality, abortions and loss of market value of the affected animals. In many countries where Sheep and Goat pox are enzootic, vaccination and bio-security are the only two main control measures. Therefore, it is essential to vaccinate sheep flocks regularly, on an annual basis, with a safe and efficient vaccine, for the control of this serious and economically important disease in endemic regions. Enhanced awareness on appropriate bio-security measures to be undertaken by livestock keepers can greatly reduce the impact of this disease on pastoral livelihoods
    Maanasa Bhaskar M and Harish B N*
    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important pathogen implicated in causing food-borne illness worldwide. Antibiotic treatment in nontyphoidal salmonellosis is usually reserved only in severe and invasive illness and in extremes of age and immunosuppressed. Emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella strains due to illicit and un wanted usage of antibiotics in humans and veterinary medicine is of global concern. Resistance to older drugs like chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim is declining and emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended spectrum cephalosporins that are traditionally used for treatment in severe cases is of particular concern. Hence it is necessary to have periodic accurate antimicrobial resistance monitoring systems in the developing countries to monitor the trends in antimicrobial resistance in Nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars.
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