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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 10
    Case Study
    Ibrahim A. Qassim*, Adil A. Mohamed, Izeldin A. Babiker, Mohamed A. Salih, Abdul-Aziz M. Albadrani, Nasreldin B. Omer, and N.S EL Buqami
    This study aims to investigate clinical and pathological findings of a clinical Coenurus cerebralis case in a 20 months-old Harri female sheep in turaba area at Taif province. Clinical examination of the sheep revealed incoordination, irregular gait, failure to hold the head straight, leftward head tilt, and circling. The animal was diagnosed with (C. cerebralis) and euthanasia was recommended. The postmortem findings demonstrated a multiple cyst as white clusters attached to the internal layer of the cyst over the caudal portion of the cerebellum within the cranium. The cyst caused compression over the ventral portion of the left cerebral hemisphere.
    In conclusion, we found it beneficial to present the clinical and pathological findings of this ewe with C. cerebralis infection which is known to be a common clinical entity among sheep.
    Research Article
    Jahan Ara Begum*, Michael Sieg, Kristin Heenemann, Awad A. Shehata, Uwe G. Liebert, and Thomas W. Vahlenkamp
    During the last decades avian influenza viruses of subtype H9N2 became panzootic and have been isolated in multiple avian species throughout Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Africa. Co-circulation with other influenza viruses enhances the potential of reassortment events with the emergence of new viruses. Phylogenetic analyses showed that viruses of subtype H9N2 served as donor of internal gene segments for highly pathogenic influenza viruses of subtype H7 and H5. Therefore vaccination against influenza viruses of subtype H9N2 is of high relevance and economical importance. As an alternative to laborintensive and time consuming conventional egg-based influenza vaccine and mammalian cell culture propagation, recombinant H9 protein production using eukaryotic systems are being applied towards the development of influenza vaccines. Based on this concept, haemagglutinins (HA) from influenzavirus H9N2 strains were expressed in Leishmania tarentolae. This expression system, based on a parasite of lizards, yields proteins with animal like glycosylation pattern and can be readily propagated to high cell density (>108 cells/ml) at 26°C. The gene encoding HA was cloned from the influenza H9N2 strain named A/chicken/Bangladesh/VP01/2006(H9N2). Soluble HA proteins were secreted into the cell culture medium and were successfully purified via a His-Tag domain fused to the proteins. After purification of protein using Ni-NTA agarose, this system resulted in a yield of approximately 2–5 mg of HA per liter of culture. The expressed recombinant HA proteins were characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blotting using different antisera. Deglycosylation using Endo H proved that the recombinant HA was glycosylated. The produced recombinant glycosylated protein may act as a promising vaccine candidate for preventing H9N2 avian influenza associated disease.
    Fufa Abunna*, Haile Jote1, Takele Beyene, Dinka Ayana, Ashenafi Feyisa, and Reta Duguma
    A cross sectional study was carried out from February 2014 to April 2014 to isolate, identify and assess the antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella from selected dairy farms and abattoir in Holeta town. A total of 232 samples were collected; 126 samples were from dairy farms (rectal feces, udder milk, pooled milkers hand swab, tank milk, tank swabs, and bucket swabs) while 106 samples from abattoir (carcass swab, rectal feces, pooled knives swab, pooled hanging materials and hand swab). The isolation and identification of Salmonella was carried out according to the techniques recommended by the international organization for standardization (ISO 6579, 2012). The overall proportion of Salmonella positive was found to be 5.6% (13/232). Of a total sample, 9.1%, 2.2%, 33.3%, 16.7%, 16.7 % and 6.7% was Salmonella positive observed from carcass swab, feces, pooled knives swab, poled hand swab, pooled hanging materials swab and udder milk, respectively. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p >0.079) observed in the proportion of Salmonella positive isolates among the sources. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of all isolates wasassessed against ten antimicrobials by disk diffusion technique; almost all isolates were resistant to one or more of the tested antimicrobials. Of all isolates 53.2% were multi drug resistant (MDR). 76.9%, 69.1%, and 38.5% of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, chloramphenicol and ampicillin, respectively. However, the majority of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and gentamycin. From this study, it is concluded that dairy farms and abattoir are a potential source of Salmonella infection with antimicrobial resistance. This is a significant threat to public health particularly to those who have direct or indirect contact to animal and animal products. Furthermore, hygienic management of dairy farms, abattoirs and prudent use of antimicrobials is recommended.
    Gitao CG*, Wanjohi GM. Bebora LC, and Muchemi GM
    This study endeavoured to establish the physical characteristics and bacterial contamination of camel milk along market chain in North-Eastern Province of Kenya. The objective of the study was to identify various points of milk contamination with a view of developing intervention strategies that can improve milk quality leading to improved productivity for pastoralists in the region. The investigation was done on various marketed camel milk samples collected from two counties: Garissa and Wajir. This was considered important because milk is a very nutritious substance that readily supports growth of microorganisms; which is more encouraged when the conditions are hot. Parameters used to assess the physical characteristics included organoleptic tests, measurement of specific gravity, determination of pH, and alcohol test. Bacteriological parameters included: Total coliform count, Total viable bacterial count, and Resazurin test. The study showed that.289 samples [75.26%] had gross dirt/particulate matter including grass/leaves, sand/soil particles and/or black charcoal particle. Thirty four [34] samples [8.85%] had an abnormal yellowish colour. Formation of flakes in the Alcohol test was recorded in 128 samples [33.33%] indicating they were either acidic, mastitic or colostrum milk. This explains the high values of more than 107 cfu/ml of TCC and TVBC observed in most of the samples [80%] in the present study. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified from one of the samples that were serotyped with Escherichia coli antisera O157 and H7. This organism can cause severe disease in humans. Other bacterial microorganisms isolated from the milk samples alongside the coliforms included: Staphylococcus species [90.10% = 346 samples], Streptococcus species [84.90% = 326 samples] and Bacillus species [45.83% = 176 samples]. Of the 346 Staphylococcus species isolated, 91 [23.70%] were coagulase-positiveThis could have been due to inadequate washing of milk containers and poor personal hygiene of the milkers, as a result of there being inaccessibility of soap and insufficient clean water, as reported in another study. Such contaminated milk spoils easily and is a prelude to both clinical and subclinical, which results in reduced milk production; both causing economic loss to the farmer.This information is expected to be of benefit to policy-makers in their efforts towards improving milk quality and safety.
    Petros Admasu* and Geremu Kaynata
    A cross-sectional study was carried from November 2014 to April 2015 to estimate the seroprevalence and assess associated risk factors of camel (Camelus dromedarius) brucellosis in Yabello district of Borena Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select pastoral associations and camel herds and a questionnaire survey was administered to 46 willing respondents whose camels were included in the sample unit. The sera obtained were initially screened with Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and those samples found positive by RBPT were further tested by Complement Fixation Test (CFT) for confirmation. Out of 384 sera 14 (3.6%) were positive using RBPT and 12 (3.1%, 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.9%) were positive using CFT. The study showed there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between age groups and those with history of abortion. However, no statistical significant difference (P>0.05) was observed among the pastoral associations, contact with other ruminant, parity, herd size and sexes of animals.The questionnaire survey showed that all owners have no awareness about zoonotic importance of the disease, drink raw milk and did not take care of retained fetal membranes and aborted fetuses. The current level of seroprevalence is enough to be a potential hazard for public health in the study area; therefore, public education about zoonotic importance of brucellosis, controlling the risk factors, proper hygienic practices and team work between veterinary and health personnel should be improved.
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