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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Mulatu Mitiku* and Kebede Amenu
    Hydatidosis is an important livestock disease which has zoonotic importance and is frequently reported from abattoirs in Ethiopia. This disease is imposing huge economic loss to the country through affecting production efficiency of livestock and resulting condemnation of organs and carcasses in abattoirs. Based on abattoir survey hydatidosis was reported with prevalence ranging from 11.3% (Harar) to 62.38% (Assela). As a consequence of under-reporting of zoonotic diseases resulted in underestimation of the real public health and economic burden that downgrades their relevance and attention given to control the diseases is very poor. To satisfy increasing demand for milk and milk product of the country, milk productivity and production should be improved through transformation of dairy industry from extensive farming system to intensive modern farming system. This can be achieved through establishing effective disease control system particularly zoonotics like hydatidosis. Veterinary extension service should be strengthened to assist farmers and there should be integration and collaboration of concerned bodies (veterinarians, public health professionals and political leaders) to control zoonoses.To show real damage incurred due to zoonoses, nationwide studies should be conducted on public health and economic impact, transmission, reservoirs, geographic distribution, control and prevention measures of zoonoses. Strengthening of veterinary facilities and extension systems, expansion of abattoir facilities, creation of community awareness, regular deworming of dogs and appropriate disposal of infected organs are recommendations forwarded in order to help zoonoses control.
    Short Communication
    Paul L. Wood*, Kirsten Scoggin, Barry A. Ball, Laurie Lawrence, Mats H. Troedsson, Kristen M. Brennan, Lauren Goedde, and Edward L. Squires
    In comparison to many other species, cryopreservation of stallion sperm results in significant cellular damage which compromises sperm function in artificial reproduction efforts. It has been hypothesized that sperm membrane fragility may be due to the higher content of docosapentanoic acid (DPA; 22:5) relative to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6) in stallion sperm. This ratioin stallion sperm appears to be the reverse of that in sperm of most other livestock species. Prvious studies have demonstrated that DHA supplementation can improve the viability of equine sperm, however, the structural lipids involved have not been examined. We therefore undertook adietary supplementation study to determine if augmented DHA levels results in increased levels of sperm glycerophospholipids containing DHA. A targeted lipidomics analysis of DHA-containing glycerophospholipidswas conducted for spermatozoa obtained from stallions prior to and upon completion of 60 days of dietary yeast-based supplement containing algal DHA. Control stallions were fed a comparable diet without supplementation.These analyses demonstrate for the first time that increasing free DHA levels in spermatozoaresults in utilization of the DHA in lipid remodeling to augment levels of DHA-containing choline and ethanolamine plasmalogens and diacyl glycerophospholipids in spermatozoa. We have generated the first detailed lipidomics data of the effects of supplementationin stallions, providing the database required for evaluating the hypothesis that low DHA levels are responsible for the poor viability of cryopreserved equine sperm.
    Mohamed Labib Salem, Afrah Fathi Salama, Wafaa Mohammed Ibrahim, and Samah Kotb Nasr Eldeen*
    Introduction: In this study we focused on novel antischistosomal toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists which induced immune cells to produce a plethora of inflammatory cytokines against shistosoma mansoni infection. We used in this study two importants agonists TLR3L (polyinosinicsalsidylic acid; poly I:C) andTLR2L zymosan. We divided this study into 2 experiments 1. The adjuvant effect of polyI:C orzymosan with soluble worm antigen (SWAP antigen) and we divided it into negative control group, positive control group ,vaccinated group with SWAP antigen, vaccinated group with SWAP antigen plus poly I:C ,vaccinated group with SWAP antigen pluszymosan 2. Antischistosomal effect of poly I:C orzymosan and we divided it intonegative control group, two positive control groups, treated groups with poly(I:C) on day 25 or day 35 after infection , treated groups with zymosan on day 25 and day 35 after infection. Antischistosomal effect of poly I:C or zymosan was evaluated by measuring serum biochemical parameters as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, albumin and total protein. We measured also oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione S. transferase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, total thiol and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate, in addition to the histopathological examinations of all mice liver tissue with measuring granuloma sizes of all infected and treated groups and finally we measured the parasitological parameters as worm burden, liver and intestine eggs count.
    Results: The results showed that polyI:C orzymosan with or without SWAP antigen improved liver enzymes ,antioxidant parameters as well as it reduced the granuloma volume, worm burden, and ova count of all treated and vaccinated groups
    Conclusion: PolyI:C orzymosan has adjuvant and antishistosomal effect against S. mansoni disease.
    Research Article
    Konto Mohammed, Salamatu M. Tukur, Mahira Watanabe, Puteri AM Abd Rani, Reuben S.K. Sharma, Lau S. Fong, and Malaika Watanabe*
    The current study focused on some of the most important common tick-borne hemopathogens of dogs in East Malaysian region with the aim of providing information regarding their prevalence and distribution among sex, age and breed. Blood samples were collected from 104 clinically healthy dogs, randomly selected from animal shelters located within Sarawak (50) and Sabah (54). Total DNA was extracted from blood samples and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia and Hepatozoon species. Of the samples tested, 86.5% were infected with at least one of the four hemopathogens; of which Babesia pp. predominated with a prevalence of 65.4%, followed by Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Hepatozoon canis with prevalence rates of 47.1%, 38.5% and 28.8% respectively. The prevalence rates of Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia canis were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Sarawak compared to Sabah (p = 0.001 each). Male dogs showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher E. canis infection rate than their female counterparts and adult dogs had a higher infection rate than younger dogs. There was no significant difference among sex, age and breed for the other hemopathogens. Co-infections were common and most dogs were infected with at least two pathogens (44.2%). Babesia spp and E. canis were most often seen to co-infect (35.6%). The study revealed high molecular and serological prevalence of tick-borne hemopathogens as well as mixed infections among stray dogs in East Malaysia.
    Ann Nancy Mills-Thompson*, Jemimah Oduma, James Nguhiu-Mwangi, Rodi Ojoo, and Andrew Makanya
    Scavenging ruminants are susceptible to rumen impaction from ingestion of indigestible plastic bags which affects feed intake and digestion, induces stress that compromise their survival. Yet, physiological evidence of stress consequent to impaction is not known, hence the aim of this study. Fifteen sheep divided into 3 groups of 5 each were coded as RIP, RC and C. Each individual in RIP had 166g of plastic bags implanted into its rumen through rumenotomy to simulate impaction while the positive control group (RC) only underwent rumenotomy without plastic bags implanted. The negative control group (C) underwent neither rumenotomy nor plastic bag-implantation. Plasma samples from each individual during the first 72 hours then weekly for 8-week post-impaction period were analyzed for cortisol as a measure of stress using an ELISA kit. Results showed elevated plasma cortisol in RIP by 4-fold (316.0 ± 4.0nmol/L, p <0.0001) to 2-fold (162.6 ± 17.9nmol/L, p = 0.0010) between 6 and 72-hour post-impaction respectively compared to their baseline value (62.3 ± 8.5nmol/L). Group C at 72 hours recorded 85.4 ± 10.7nmol/L. Elevated plasma cortisol in RIP persisted the subsequent 3 weeks (153.6 ± 35.1nmol/L, p <0.0001) compared to C, declining to normal levels by the 8th week. In RC increased levels were noted 6 hours post-rumenotomy (174.4 ± 48.6nmol/L, p = 0.0125) compared to C (85.0 ± 3.1nmol/L), but after week 1 declined to normal levels. In conclusion, sheep with impacted-rumen have acutely elevated plasma cortisol, indicative of stress but declines to normal if survived.
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