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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Maricel Guzman, Pedro Steffan, Eliana Riva, Gisele Bernat, Silvana Scarcella, Graciela Murno, Claudio Giudici, Edgardo Rodriguez and Cesar Fiel*
    In order to evaluate the potential risk of Haemonchus contortus resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) treatments to pass from sheep to cattle a series of experiments were carried out. Two field isolates of H. contortus resistant (Ayacucho) or susceptible (Cedive) to BZ treatments were reproduced in lambs and involved in the study. Two groups of 4 calves each and two groups of 4 lambs each were infected with larvae (L3) of each isolate respectively. The number of eggs in faeces (EPG), worm count and ratio of worm establishment (RWE) were determined. The number of red blood cells, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration was assessed. The EPG levels were higher for Ayacucho isolate which reached to a peak of 7,168 and 780 at day 42 post inoculation (PI) in lambs and calves respectively. The RWE at day 45 PI was 28.8 % and 7.16% for Ayacucho isolate in lambs and calves respectively while for Cedive isolate was 36.6% and 0.04% respectively. At day 90 PI the RWE was of 1.94% and 0.69% in lambs for Ayacucho and Cedive isolate respectively, whereas no worms were recovered from calves. The haematological parameters in lambs and calves did not show significant differences between isolates. The present studies demonstrate that some populations of H. contortus may complete life cycle in calves and remain established for at least a 45 days period PI. This finding should be strongly considered when farm production involves mixed or alternate sheep/cattle grazing and backgrounds of anthelmintic resistance.
    Tigist Teketel, Merzuk Hasen, Gobu Boru and Mukarim Abdurahaman*
    Cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to May 2016 to determine the prevalence and to assess the risk factors of calf coccidiosis in and around Jimma town. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 384 calves by random selection from in and around Jimma town. Out of 384 calves, 131 (34.1%) were found to be positive for Eimeria species. In this study, age, breed, management and body condition was considered as risk factors and analysed accordingly. The result showed that there was significant difference (P< 0.05) in the prevalence of coccidiosis among the management systems of calves with the highest prevalence in extensive system (40.9%). There was significant variation (P< 0.05) between calf breeds and infection by Eimerias. The highest prevalence of coccidial infection was recorded in calves with age of 12-24 months (62.5%) and the lowest in age of 6-12 months (29.9%) (P<0.05, ?2=12.69). In conclusion, the present finding has demonstrated that bovine coccidia are one of the important pathogens in calves in the study area. Further epidemiological investigations are required to determine the significance of Eimeria in calves and different risk factors on the occurrence of the disease.
    Pinar Demir*, Erol Aydin, Kadir Bozukluhan
    The province of Kars and the surrounding area, which are located in the Northeast Anatolia Region of Turkey, have a very significant potential for animal husbandry. The fact that animals are raised with traditional methods on pastures and meadows leads to periodic occurrence of infectious diseases in the region, especially foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The purpose of this study was to determine the economic assessment of FMD dairy cattle business owners in the province of Kars in Turkey. Interviews carried out with 82 animal farms in the region revealed that foot-and-mouth disease occurred in 725 out of 2,468 head of cattle. According to that information, the average prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease was calculated to be 29.38%. Furthermore, the survey study also determined that 95.12% of the farmers had had foot-and-mouth vaccinations administered within the past year to prevent FMD. The cost of the drug and treatment was calculated to be annual average of $110.49 per farm. It was estimated that the annual financial losses caused by FMD amounted to an average of $386 per animal
    Short Communication
    Lv Jizhou, Maria Fernandez de Marco, Paul L. Phipps, Michele Macrelli, Arthur Otter, Becky Inman, Sian Mitchell, and Nicholas Johnson*
    Bovine babesios is a sporadic disease within the United Kingdom causing mortality and morbidity within the national herd. Despite numerous reports in cattle, there have been no published reports of its molecular characterization or genetic confirmation of the Babesia species since its first description in England. This study describes the molecular detection and species identification of Babesiadivergens in a case of babesiosis from an outbreak of the disease on a farm in northern England. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that B. divergens 18S RNA sequence in England is 100% identical to B. divergens in Ireland and France. The sequence derived is publically available and can be used to compare future cases of bovine babesiosis, especially if the pathogenesis of disease changes in response to the emergence of other Babesia species.
    Review Article
    Gemechu Regea*
    Brucellosis also known as "undulant fever", "Mediterranean fever" or "Malta fever" is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Bruce in 1887. Subsequently, an increasingly complex pattern of strains has emerged with the identification of Brucella aborts, Brucella suis, Brucella neotomae, Brucella ovis, Brucella canis, and, more recently, types infecting marine mammals. Because each type has distinctive epidemiologic features, with each new type, the complexity of the interaction with humans has increased. Because new strains may emerge and existing types adapt to changing social and agricultural practices, the picture remains incomplete. The disease is presented as an acute or persistent febrile illness with a diversity of clinical manifestations. Treatment of the disease is difficult because its symptom is complex, it can cause flu and malaria like symptoms. So it causes much economic destruction by direct and indirect. The control of brucellosis requires collaboration of different discipline through one health approach. Especially, in developing country Ethiopia, since the eradication of brucellosis is difficult, its control is very important.
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