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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Khosrow Chehri* and Rasoul Godini
    To identify fumonisin chemotype of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC) isolated from barely, 75 barely samples were collected from different markets in Western Iran. Based on morphological characters, 40 Fusarium isolates were obtained from the grains and grouped into four species F. proliferatum (14) and F. subglutinans (3) as the two known GFSC members, F. graminearum senso lato (13), and F. equiseti (10). The identification of F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans isolates were confirmed molecularly using species-specific of PRO1/PRO2 and SUB1/SUB2 primers, respectively, which selectively amplified the partial calmodulin gene of rDNA. PCR-based detection of a mycotoxin-synthesis-pathway gene was also used to determine the potential of the analyzed strains to produce fumonisin using FUM1 F/FUM1 R primers. Of 17 tested isolates, 8 isolates (47%) are fumonisin chemotype. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular identification and mycotoxigenic capacity characterization of GFSC isolated from barely in Western Iran.
    Tagesu Abdisa*
    Tick infestation is one of the major economic problems in the production of livestock in Ethiopia. Ticks are the obligate parasite and belong to the suborder Ixodida, which contains a single super family, the Ixodoidea, which is divided into two major families, Argasidae (soft ticks) and Ixodidae (hard ticks), and the rare family Nuttalliellidae, with a single African species. The main tick genera found in domestic animals of Ethiopia are Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, and Haemaphysalis. Ticks bites can transmit the viral, bacterial and protozoal disease to livestock and also it can cause irritation to the livestock while biting. Tick can be controlled by applying the acaricid especially organophosphates, amidines and synthetipyrithroids, chlorinated hydrocarbons and arsenicals and ivermectin which are expensive to buy. However, Ethnoveterinary practices may provide very good alternatives since they are cheap and easily accessible and It can replace modern practices especially for those folks living in remote rural areas where modern veterinary service is scant. Several plants have been shown to possess anti-tick, insecticidal, growth inhibiting, antimoulting and repellent activities. The chemical which act as acaricide and repellents are present in leaves, stem, root fruit and seed of this all above plants. Andalso, the combination of juice, powder or latex of plant can be used for controlling of tick. The chemical which extract from plant act as acaricide are like alkaloid calpurmenin, catechol tannins aponins, sugars, leuco-anthocyanins, polyterpenes, and sterols. The plant which act as the killing, repellent effect to ticks in Ethiopia are like Azadirachta indica, Phytolacca dodecandra, Calpurnia aurea, Millettiaferruginea, Tephrosia vogelz ,Euphorbia abyssinica,Cucumis prophetarum, Parathem'um hysterophoms, Syadenium grantiz, Lantana camara,Silenemacroserene, Grewia ferruginea and others. In conclusion, the plant which found in Ethiopia are source of chemical that can inhibit the tick and other insects. The chemical extracted from stem, leaves, bark, seed and root can be applied on to the surface of livestock at tick infested area and it can kill or repel the ticks. The objective of this review is just to know the plant species which can act as acaricide, repellent and larvicidal effect on ticks. To overview the chemical constituent and extraction of plantwhich used to production of modern acaricide in the future industry.
    Gabrielle Rands, John Thomason, Robert Wills, and Robin Fontenot*
    Glucosamine supplementation is a commonly administered therapy in horses and dogs, but has been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation in humans and guinea pigs. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effects of glucosamine on equine and canine platelet aggregation. Platelet-rich plasma, created from blood from eight healthy horses and eight healthy dogs, was incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature with four glucosamine concentrations: 0 µg/ml, 1 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml, and 100 µg/ml. Platelet aggregation, using ADP (40 µM) and collagen (10 µg/ml) as agonists. In horses, there was no change in the mean maximum aggregationat any glucosamine concentration for either ADP (p=0.096) or collagen (p=0.86). In dogs, there was an increase in maximum aggregation for the 100 µg/ml samples compared to the 0 µg/ml (p=0.0013) and 1 µg/mL (p=0.0244) samples when ADP was used as an agonist. There was no change (p=0.2925) in maximum aggregation when collagen was used as an agonist. Our study suggests that glucosamine does not exert an in vitro anti-platelet effect on equine and canine platelet aggregation.
    Review Article
    N. Deepa and MY Sreenivasa*
    Fusarium verticillioides is a multi-phytopathogenic fungi widely distributed throughout the world in association with cereals and cereal based food products. Cereals are the basic staple food which provides much of the energy and protein for many populations, where 2534MT consumed as food by Humans and animals. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat or maize constitutes a majority of daily substance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is more moderate and varied as using cereal based products like corn flakes, oats, Poultry and animal feeds etc. Due to poor agricultural practices and intermittent rain at the time of harvest cereals are prone to contamination by number of fungi and it has become unavoidable and a worldwide problem. Fusarium species are the most common fungi associated with cereals all over the world. Among which F. verticillioides is the most frequently isolated species. FAO estimated that around 25-50% of cereals have been contaminated by mycotoxins. F. verticillioides produces secondary metabolites such as Fumonisins, trace level of fusaric acid, beauvericin, fusarin C, moniliformin, gibberiliformin in very low amount. Fumonisins receive the most attention as it is a potential carcinogen of global concern because they are the common contaminants of cereals and cereal-based foods. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated the toxin fumonisin as human carcinogen.
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