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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Wumbiya SD*, Mutebi Francis, Eneku Wilfred, Nasinyama GW, Skjerve Eystein, Adrian Muwonge, Musso M, Mugasa C, Nabadda D, Mirembe B, Ambrose J, Bugeza James, Wizaso Mwansinga, and Kankya C
    Background: Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease of major public health importance globally. The disease is endemic in pastoral communities of developing countries because of poor hygienic conditions, illegal home and backyard slaughtering of animals coupled with the presence of stray dogs and poor veterinary services among others. In South Sudan, the magnitude and factors associated with persistence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge attitudes and practices of the pastoral community towards persistence and maintenance of cystic echinococcosis among domestic animals and humans in Kapoeta county Eastern Equatoria state, South Sudan.
    Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and a semi-structured questionnaires, observation, focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informants interviews were used to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs) of the pastoral community.
    Results: Out of the 384 respondents, only 3.9% knew about CE, 10.7% and 6.7% had seen the disease in man and animals respectively, only 36.9% perceived themselves at risk of acquiring CE. Practices identified as potential risk factors for CE included dog ownership (64.0%), presence of stray dogs (99.2%), no de-worming of dogs (91.7%), home slaughtering (82.8%), no hand washing (89.3%), no water boiling (78.9%), and feeding uncooked infected organs to dogs (54.4%). FGDs revealed that people do not perceive themselves at risk of infection from dogs, and that people think CE is caused by witchcraft.
    Conclusions: The study clearly showed that there is a knowledge gap about the disease, and the predisposing factors that are responsible for the persistence and maintenance of CE within Kapoeta pastoral community were present. These are wide range of modifiable factors, which should constitute targets for control. There is therefore a need for community education about CE through the One Health Approach.
    Steven X. Hu*
    Flavin containing monooxygenases (FMO) and aldehyde oxidases (AO) are two important groups of non-cytochrome P450 enzymes in animals and humans. Age-dependent hepatic activities of those enzymes were evaluated in male Ross 708 broiler chickensat age 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. FMO activity was significantly higher in chicken livers at age of day 1, declined rapidly to the lowest level measured at age of day 14 and then gradually increased. Meanwhile hepatic AO was low in chicken at age of day 1 and gradually increased. The overall AO activity in chicken liver was low compared to its hepatic FMO or CYP450 reported previously. Since FMO and AO activities are age-dependent in chicken livers, the impact of age on endogenous and exogenous metabolism by hepatic FMO and AO should be considered.
    Review Article
    Tagesu Abdisa*
    Epizootic lymphangitis is one of the major chronic contagious disease of equine which cause pyogenic, ulcerative, and generalized spreading pyogranulomatous, multifocal dermatitis with lymphadenitis, and a cord like appearance of the subcutaneous lymphatic vessels. It is caused by dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum species. Equine Epizootic lymphangitiscan be seen commonly in the extremities along front and hind legs, chest wall, belly and the neck. The disease is endemic in some countries of West, North, North east Africa, East Africa (Ethiopia) and Asia including India, Pakistan and Japan, where it is mostly diffused in areas characterized by humid and hot climates. The incidence of epizootic lymphangitis disease will become high only when large numbers of animal's population were collected together such as seen in military situations or congregation for racing, in addition mortalities were low. The mode of transmission of Epizootic lymphangitis disease includes transmission by direct or indirect contact of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum with traumatized skin, by biting flies, by ticks or by inhalation of fungus. There are three forms of epizootic lymphangitis disease in horse exist in Ethiopia: cutaneous, ocular, and respiratory. The cutaneous form is most common, causing a chronic, suppurative, ulcerating pyogranulomatous dermatitis and lymphangitis. Diagnosis of epizootic lymphangitis depends on the clinical sign, history of animals and laboratory confirmation. And, differential diagnosis which confuse with different disease for instance; The skin form of the disease may be confused with the skin form of glanders, ulcerative lymphangitis, indolent ulcers sporotrichosis, strangles and cutaneous lymph sarcomas. Treatment of Epizootic lymphangitis is mandatory to prevent spreading of the infection, whereas for disease control, culling infected horses and adoption of hygiene measures (e.g., cleaning and disinfection) and insects control are required. Control of this disease should be by vaccination and appropriate wound management with administration of iodine, intravenous injection of sodium iodide and amphotericin B. The objective of this paper is to overview the causative agent, diagnosis, control and prevention of equine Epizootic Lymphangitis.
    Gemechu Regea*
    Influenza virus is one of the pandemic diseases that causes economic destruction and causes significant morbidity and mortality mainly in human as well in birds and swine. It is highly contagious disease that considered as emerging disease. According to the World Health Organization, every winter, tens of millions of people get the flu. Most are only ill and out of work for a week, yet the elderly are at a higher risk of death from the illness. Since many migratory birds can cross the boundary it is difficult to control its spread from one country to another. This Influenza has ability to Antigenic Changes through Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, a particular influenza vaccine usually confers protection for no more than a few years. This paper attempt review general consideration of influenza virus and its prevention, especially in avian influenza virus free area.
    Jemal Jabir Yusuf*
    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasites. The causative agents of Babesiosis are specific for particular species of animals. In cattle: B. bovis and B. bigemina are the common species involved in babesiosis. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., the principal vectors of B. bovis and B. bigemina, are widespread in tropical and subtropical countries. Babesia multiplies in erythrocytes by asynchronous binary fission, resulting in considerable pleomorphism. Babesia produces acute disease by two principle mechanism; hemolysis and circulatory disturbance. Affected animals suffered from marked rise in body temperature, loss of appetite, cessation of rumination, labored breathing, emaciation, progressive hemolytic anemia, various degrees of jaundice (Icterus). Lesions include an enlarged soft and pulpy spleen, a swollen liver, a gall bladder distended with thick granular bile, congested dark-coloured kidneys and generalized anemia and jaundice. The disease can be diagnosis by identification of the agent by using direct microscopic examination, nucleic acid-based diagnostic assays, in vitro culture and animal inoculation as well as serological tests like indirect fluorescent antibody, complement fixation and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays tests. Babesiosis occurs throughout the world. However, the distribution of the causative protozoa is governed by the geographical and seasonal distribution of the insect vectors. Recently Babesia becomes the most widespread parasite due to exposure of 400 million cattle to infection through the world, with consequent heavy economic losses such as mortality, reduction in meat and milk yield and indirectly through control measures of ticks. Different researches conducted in Ethiopia reveal the prevalence of the disease in different parts of the country. The most commonly used compounds for the treatment of babesiosis are diminazene diaceturate, imidocarb, and amicarbalide. Active prevention and control of Babesiosis is achieved by three main methods: immunization, chemoprophylaxis and vector control.
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