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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 6
    Research Article
    Mohamed Wefky El-Sherif*
    A new medial patellar desmotomy technique in cattle and donkeys (Equus acinus) is presented. It has been successfully applied to 20 alive animals. The technique is simple, takes few minutes and easily applicable. In contrast to other techniques designed for medial patellar ligament desmotomy; the present technique is less invasive, the skin at the surgical site is not incised, following certain recommendations; the pericapsular fat and joint capsule are not invaded and the ligament is fully transected in a one-step procedure. Minimal tissue invasiveness limits the infection of the surgical site, minimizes bleeding and decreases their related postoperative consequences. On clinical application; the present approach was feasible, reliable and less time and tool requiring.
    Kiflu Belete*
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in local breeds of sheep in Amhara Sayint district from November 2016 to April 2017. Fecal samples from 383 sheep, 164 from males and 219 from females, were collected and examined by standard sedimentation technique. The overall prevalence rate of fasciolosis was found to be 41.3%. The prevalence was compared among different risk factors. Additionally, month specific prevalence was recorded for comparison. The highest prevalence was recorded on November and March being 58.4 and 61.2 respectively. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between sexes of animals. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) according to age, body condition, origin and the history of deworming. The results revealed that the infection was significantly higher in adult animals than in the young ones. The infection rate in poor body conditioned animals was highest and lowest in good body conditioned animals. Animals originated from high land were most affected by the infection than those from low land. In a similar way, dewormed animals were found to be less challenged by the infection than the non-dewormed ones. The present investigation indicated that fasciolosis is a prevalent disease of sheep in the study area. Hence, it demands further studies on its economic significance. Fasciolosis is the important disease in the study area. Therefore, strategic and tactical control measures need to be implemented.
    Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz*, Raza Hameed, Mudaseer Nazir, Ahsan Sattar Sheikh, Irtza Hussain, Najeeb Ullah, Noreen Samad, Aqal Zaman, Atif Akbar, and Yadong Zheng
    Fascioliasis is an economically important parasitic disease of small ruminants mainly caused by a trematodes of the genus Fasciola. The most important species responsible for fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The study was conducted for detection of fascioliasis in small ruminants through ELISA in Multan. A total of 100 samples were collected randomly for examination of GIT parasites especially for prevalence of fascioliasis. The animals under study were selected randomly without any discrimination of sex and age. During coprological parasitological examination of goats of district Multan, the total number of positive cases for Fasciola hepatica was 33/100 (33%) by sedimentation technique(s) and 19/100 (19%) by direct examination of the slides while 25/100 (25%) through floatation method were diagnosed respectively. The ELISA was performed on serum samples along with Copro-ELISA on the naturally infested animals. The ELISA gave promising results. It is recommended that there should be a routine procedure for the detection/ diagnosis of fascioliasis in goats through ELISA for good sustainable production practices in free range(s).
    Kana Jean Raphaël*, Mube Kuietché Hervé, Ngouana Tadjong Ruben, Yangoue Antoine, Komguep Ronald, Tsafong Francklin, and Teguia Alexis
    Background: Due to its side effects, antibiotic feed additives have become a real public health concern and trigger an explosion of interest in the use of alternatives such as plants products as supplements in animal rations. This study was designed to assess the effects of Afrostyrax lepidophyllus fruit and bark powder on growth performances and serological parameters of broiler chickens.
    Methods: A total of 240 day-old Cobb 500 strain chicks were randomly assigned to five experimental diets formulated from a negative control ration (R0-) by adding 1g antibiotic (Doxycycline®) which served as a positive control (R0+), 2g of powder from the fruit (F), 2g of the bark powder (B) and 2g of the mixture (1/1) of fruit and bark (FB) of Afrostyrax lepidophyllus in a kg of basal diet.
    Results: During growing-finishing phase (22-49 days) and throughout the study period (1-49 days), feed intake (FI), and live body weight (LBW) and body weight gain (BWG) were significantly higher with A. lepidophyllus bark powder as compared to the negative control diet. Irrespective to the study phase, A. lepidophyllus bark’s powder and antibiotic induced the highest FI and the highest BWG, while the lowest BWG was recorded the A. lepidophyllus fruit-bark mixture. Gain/food ratio and abdominal fat deposit did not vary with the inclusion of A. lepidophyllus fruit, back and their mixture in the ration. The lowest cost of production was recorded with the ration supplemented with Afrostyrax lepidophyllus bark powder.
    Conclusions: The study clearly showed that 2g/kg Afrostyrax lepidophyllus’s bark can replace antibiotics in the ration to promote growth performances and reduce the cost of production of broiler chickens in the finisher phase.
    Review Article
    N. Deepa and MY Sreenivasa*
    Fumonisins are the phytotoxic mycotoxins mainly synthesized by species of Fusarium such as by F. verticillioides (formerly Fusarium moniliforme=Gibberella fujikuroi), F. proliferatum, F. anthophilum, F. nygamai, F. oxysporum, F. globosum and other species like Alternaria alternate among which F. verticillioides is the worldwide recognized species in production of fumonisin in association with cereals and cereal based food products. Worldwide contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem. Corn based foods and animal feeds are mainly associated with fumonisins due to N-fatty acylated fumonisin estimating free FB1 and total bound FB1 in corn foods and thebinding of fumonisins to cholestyramine which is a potential means of detoxification of animal feed. The economic impact of mycotoxins includes loss of human and animal life, increased health care and veterinary care costs, reduced livestock production, disposal of contaminated foods and feeds. Fumonisins arehighly carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and embryotoxic in animals and in humans fumonisins are associated with oesophageal cancer and neural tube defects.
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