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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 7
    Research Article
    DE Cosby*, NA Cox, MA Harrison, ME Berrang, and JL Wilson
    Newly hatched broiler chicks may be exposed to Campylobacter from various sources in the hatchery and grow-out environments. Chicks may come in contact with Campylobacter in the air or in the droppings of other birds which chicks may eat or sit on. It is not clear how airborne, cloacal and oral exposure to Campylobacter may affect subsequent cecal colonization. In this study, a marker strain of Campylobacter coli, naturally gentamicin resistant (CcGR), was introduced into 585 day-of-hatch chicks through each of four body openings {mouth (with and without CaCO3), nasal passage, eye and cloaca} to simulate oral, cloacal and airborne exposure. Campylobacter coliGR was introduced by each route of exposure at three different inoculum levels (approximately 2 x 101, 2 x 102 and 2 x 103 colony forming units (cfu)/bird). All chicks were humanely euthanized 7 d, ceca were removed and sampled for the presence and numbers of CcGR by serial dilution onto Campy-cefex agar plates with 200 ppm gentamicin. Three replications were conducted (n=225, n=225 and n=135 for experiments 1, 2 and 3 respectively). All routes of exposure that were tested resulted in cecal colonization of 7 d old broilers. The nasal passage produced the lowest level of cecal colonization requiring higher inoculum levels of CcGR for colonization. These data suggest that CcGR can readily colonize the ceca of day-of-hatch broiler chicks when exposed by mouth, cloaca, or breathing/blinking in airborne cells. Therefore, multiple intervention strategies may be required to interrupt exposure and colonization of young broilers by Campylobacter.
    Vladimir Shimalov*
    The results of the helminthological investigation of wild animals on infestation by the lancet liver fluke in Belorussian Polesie during 1980-2016 are presented. Seven species of animals are established as hosts of this helminth. A total the lancet liver fluke were found by helminthologists in nine species of wild animals in Belorussian Polesie. Their participation in the formation of the centers of dicrocoeliosis and create a threat of infection for susceptible hosts.
    Horacio Luis Pinto Tommasi*, Durvanei Augusto Maria, Andrea Maria Mess, Ricardo Rodrigues Giorgi, Consuelo Rodrigues Junqueira, and Maria Angelica Miglino
    Skin problems and wounds seriously affect human health, as well as dogs and other animals. New applications aim at finding appropriate progenitor cells to establish cell therapies. In order to test their potential value for such purposes, we isolated, cultivated and characterized cells from follicles of the tactile hairs in dog embryos and fetuses. We investigated a total of 16 samples of dog fetuses of 30 to 40 days of gestation, obtained from castration procedures undertaken by the public health programs of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. We divided the samples in three groups representing the transition from embryo to fetus, through cell cycle analysis, cell culture, as well as flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR-RT analysis for 20 relevant markers. We successfully maintained cells for 10 to 30 days in cell culture. Data showed the characteristic expression of markers for pluripotent and/or mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. OCT 3/4, Nanog, CD-105, CD-90, SSEA-4, STRO-1, VEGFR-1, and Ki-67 as well as S-100, which is specific for the identification of developing hair cells and multipotent dermal cells. Samples from the older fetuses (40 days) showed a comprehensive development of hair cells, but also contained an appropriate differentiation potential that is useful for therapeutic applications. In conclusion, data indicated that cells derived from hair follicles of dog fetuses, especially around day 40, resulted in multipotent, mesenchymal stem cells that may be of value for stem cell therapies in order to improve regeneration of the skin.
    Short Communication
    Gerald C.Coles*
    Triclabendazole is the best fasciolicide available with activity against very young fluke. But there are increasing numbers of reports of resistance including failure of therapy in humans. Determining the resistance status on ‘fluky' farms is essential as high mortality of sheep can occur if it is not realised resistance is present. The options for control are confined to other less effective products and failure of closantel as well could lead to the closure of some sheep farms in the UK. Preventing fluke infections though pasture management is difficult or may be impossible so development of a vaccine is urgently required.
    Commentaries
    Ana Margarita Obregón Fuentes*
    This paper summarized some interesting aspects related with the microbiological investigations on human leptospirosis carried out in Cuba from 1959 to 2017. The role of the Cuban national reference laboratory on Spirochetes and Brucella in the microbiological surveillance, the confirmation of epidemic outbreaks and in clinical trials related on reactogenicity, immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness of the Cuban anti-leptospirosis vaxSPIRAL® vaccine is also assessed. All these results represent contributions to support the National Program of Prevention and Control of the disease in Cuba.
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