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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 8
    Case Report
    Bennaoui F*, Bourkhissi L, Benbahia A, Maoulainine FMR, and El Idrissi Slitine N
    Neonatal tetanus is a disease caused by toxoid produced by Clostridium tetani, which is rare in newborns; it is an unresolved medical problem in developing countries. The elimination of neonatal tetanus is one of the main objectives pursued by World Health Organization throughout the world. In Morocco; despite the certification of tetanus's elimination; it still rages, with still 4 cases in 2016 in our unit.
    We report 4 cases collected in the neonatal intensive care unit, in Mohamed VI University Hospital in Marrakech, during the year 2016.
    Neonatal tetanus accounted for 0.68% of all admissions. Pregnancy was not monitored in all 4 cases. Only one woman received 2 doses spaced of tetanus vaccine. The delivery occurred at home in 3 of the cases with application of “Khôl” at the level of the umbilicus. The mean age of admission was 12.5 days. A Dakar score was noted = 4 in 3 cases and is classified as stage III according to the Mollaret classification. The treatment was essentially palliative: it was based on sedation and artificial ventilation. There was mortality in 3 cases.
    Tetanus remains a problem in Morocco, despite the progress made, it is necessary to review the eradication strategy. Currently the treatment is essentially preventive, based on vaccination, as well as health education and improvement of hygienic conditions.
    Review Article
    Nur Dikmen Yaman and Mustafa Sirlak*
    Echinococcus is a parasiticsource of infection that occurs in humans in endemic regions of the world. It causes medical, veterinary and economic problems for endemic developing countries.Primary echinococcosis of the heart represents 0,5-2% of all hydatid disease. This is a retrospective review of recent literature that consists information about 35 case report studies from different regions and aims to emphasize the significant points of approach principals to cardiac echinococcosis.
    Ahmed El-Khamary, Mohamed Nazih, Mohamed El-Sherif*, and Waleed Senosy
    The objective of this study was to develop a color flow doppler ultrasound-guided technique for the pudendal nerve block in male donkeys. A detailed anatomical dissection was performed in five donkey cadavers to obtain the precise details of pudendal nerve and its relations and ramifications, detect the pudendal nerve blood vessels and to determine the optimal point for local anesthetic injection. The pudendal nerve in six male native breed donkeys was blocked successfully with local anesthetic solution. The injection site was located with the aid of ultrasound. Ten milliliters of local analgesic solution were injected via 20cm, 18-gauge needle. Anesthetic effect was evaluated after bilateral pudendal nerve blocks. A feasible, applicable and highly accurate technique to locate the pudendal nerve was developed. Satisfactory anesthesia of the anus, perineum, penis, prepuce and glans penis was achieved while the animal in a steady standing position.
    Research Article
    Eric R. Benson*, Robert L. Alphin, and Daniel P. Hougentogler
    There are six major steps involved in responding to rapidly spreading poultry disease outbreaks including biosecurity, surveillance, quarantine, mass emergency depopulation, mass carcass disposal, and decontamination. Water-based foam is one of the methods used for mass emergency depopulation during severe disease outbreaks. This project evaluated the logistics of foam depopulation in two experiments. In one experiment, the impact of operating in wider poultry barns was assessed. In the second, the logistics of containerized depopulation were evaluated. Foam expansion rate was impacted by the type of equipment used, with foam generators having higher expansion rate than air aspirating nozzles. Foam expansion rate generally improves the longer the system operates. Barn width negatively affected expansion rate and for wider barns, extensions were required for the system to be efficiently operated.
    Fathy Mohamed Ali Awad, Abdinasir Yusuf Osman*, Muhammad Luqman Nordin, Zainal Abidin Abu-Hassan, Nazlina Ibrahim, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad, Rumaizi Shaari, Jasni Sabri, and Abdul Aziz Saharee
    Natural products are still major potential sources of innovative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infectious diseases as they represent an unmet source of chemical diversity. This study was conducted to determine the antitrypanosomal properties of Rosmarinus officinalis crude ethanol extract (CEERO) following intraperitoneal exposure to rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six major groups; namely pre-infection (Group1), concurrent (Group 2), post-infection (Group 3), positive control (Group 4), negative control (Group 5) and reference group (Group 6). Animals in Group 1- were treated intraperitoneally with 100 mg kg-1 of extracts two days before T. evansi infection until 4 days after infection. Group 2- rabbit was infected and concurrently treated with 100 mg kg-1 of extract for 6 days; Group 3- rabbit was treated with 100 mg kg-1 of extract for 6 days after detection of parasitemia; Group 4 (positive control) was treated via intramuscular with 3.5 mg kg-1 Berenil® after establishment of parasitemia following T. evansi infection; Group 5-( negative control) was not treated but infected; Group 6- served as reference group and treated interperitoneally with Alsever's solution and not infected. The course of T. evansi infection in rabbits was followed for 48 days post-infection (DPI). Rabbits were closely observed for clinical examination. Blood samples were taken to measure haematological and biochemical parameters. Rabbits in group 5 showed prominent clinical signs that were characteristic of T. evansi infection, which included anemia, poorer general condition, oedema of the face, ocular discharges, encrustation of the lips and mortality rates. The isolate also induced alterations with increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and decreased levels of blood indices; notably packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBC). Mortality rates were also significantly (p<0.05) recorded among the infected rabbits. These data suggest the crude ethanol extracts of R. officinalis possess relatively antitrypanosomal activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as alternative remedy for T. evansi infection in traditional medicine.
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