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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 4, Issue 9
    Research Article
    Jens Boettcher*, Magdalena Schumacher, Benjamin Motsch, Daniel Mehne, Michaela Alex, and Britta Janowetz
    The zoonotic pathogen Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is characterized by two antigenic phases (PhI and II). PhI- and PhII-antibody tests and a PhII-IFN-γ-recall assay (IFN-γ-RA) with neutralization of IL-10 were developed for ruminants. Cows in an endemically infected farm were monitored for shedding of C. burnetii by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in milk (MS) and puerperal fluid (PS) samples over a period of two years. Subsequently, blood was collected. According to the shedding pattern cows were allocated to four groups: (1) MS+/PS+ (n=16), (2) MS+/PS- (n=36), (3) MS-/PS+ (n=17), and (4) Non-S (n=37, non-shedder). A fifth group consisted of primiparous cows that had been vaccinated as heifers prior tobreeding and thatwere tested after calving ((5) H/Vacc, n=11). As an additional parameter, the time since last detection of C. burnetii (< 6 months, = 6 months) was also included in the analysis.
    Group 1 was characterized by a higher level of PhI/PhII-antibodies and a lower level of IFN-γ compared to group 3, which was characterized by high level of IFN-γ, a moderate level of PhII-antibodies and absence or low level of PhI-antibodies. An inverse relationship of parameters of cellular and humoral immunity was observed for these two groups. An intermediate position was observed for group 2, i.e., cows with recent detection of C. burnetii tended to show a pattern similar to group 1, while those shedding C. burnetii more than 6 months ago were similar to group 3. Vaccinated heifers were characterized by strong IFN-γ-reactivity, moderate PhII-antibodies and absence of PhI-antibodies; low level shedding was observed in heifers despite vaccination.
    Abeer Khamis, Mohammed A. El-Magd, Samah K Nasr Eldeen*, Wafaa M. Ibrahim, and Afrah F. Salama
    Trehalose compound has no cytotoxic effect on naïve mice. It shows protective effects in various cells against harmful stimuli such as heat, dehydration, cold, desiccation and oxidation and it has antitumour effect against Erlich ascites carcinoma. In this study, mice were assigned into four groups: control group, trehalose group (200µg/mouse), methotrexate group (25µg/mouse), trehalose plus methotrexate group, six times a day. On day 14th, mice were euthanized. Biochemical parameters such as hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), albumin and total protein in serum have been determined. Glutathione S. transferase, catalase, totalantioxidants and malondialdehyde in liver tissue, in addition to complete blood count (CBC) and histological studies of all groups were carried out. The results indicate that trehalose has no cytotoxic effect on naïve mice when compared with methotrexate as chemotherapeutic agentonlyandtrehalose may be considered as a novel drug.
    Micha C. Simons* and Ron Ben-Amotz
    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome after the use of borate-based biological glass for the treatment of full-thickness wounds.
    Study design: Retrospective case series.
    Animals: Six dogs with full-thickness wounds.
    Methods: The medical records of dogs with full-thickness wounds treated during June 2012- January 2016 using borate-based biological glass were evaluated. Data included signalment, wound cause and location, type and duration of previous wound management, time to granulation tissue formation, time to complete wound healing, subsequent procedures if applicable, outcome, and complications associated with treatment.
    Results: Six wounds (one per dog) were evaluated. After biological glass application varying degrees of granulation tissue developed at all wounds sites. The mean number of days to achieve complete granulation coverage after bioglass application was 4.8 (range, 3-7 days). This corresponded to a mean number of two biological glass applications per wound. There were no complications noted.
    Conclusion: Borate-based biological glass appears to promote granulation tissue formation and may be effective in the management of full-thickness wounds.
    Clinical relevance: Borate-based biological glass may be safely used for the treatment of full-thickness wounds. Studies to further define clinical indications and efficacy are warranted.
    Short Note
    Ganga N*
    All children are born to grow, to develop, to live, to love and to articulate their needs and feelings for their self protection” - Alice Miller.
    Review Article
    Bashahun Gebremichael* and Gelane Darge
    Egg peritonitis documented to be one of the majorcauses of morbidity and mortality of chickens in poultry farms, resulting in the reduced egg production in the poultry industries. Egg peritonitis can occurin any environment, but is more common in factory farms and in flocks where chickens are highly stressed and exposed to too much artificial lightat young age. Ruptured oviduct, reverse peristalsis, genetics and stresses during ovulation are important factors for the problem to occur. Distended abdomen, frequent multiple yolked eggs, cessation in laying and yellow-orange droppings are the most diagnostic clinical signs. Diagnosis can be made through history, physical examination, x-ray, radiography, laboratory and postmortem examinations. Treatment often involves using antibiotics(such asBaytril®, Sulphonamides®, Gentamycin®, etc.) which usually help to treat infection. However, unless the birdsare able to stop laying internally, the peritonitis will usually recur. Mild cases of egg peritonitis may be managed medically while severe cases are corrected by surgical intervention. Management of bodyweight, reproductive development, and good sanitation are the best preventive approaches. The aim of thisreviewis tocompileavailableliterature onthe current status and global distribution of Egg peritonitis and share appropriate information for further investigation.
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