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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 5, Issue 10
    Review Article
    Bin Zhao*, Kuiyun Huang, Xia Jiang, Jinming Cao
    The intensive use of poultry manure is a significant environmental risk to soil water. Manure composition emissions can be effected by soil water with the application of poultry manure.
    The vectors to represent the relationship between soil water characteristics and antibiotic were generated. A Semi-empirical Richards equation is employed to the biostatistical models of soil moisture while precise solutions of Richards equation obtained by using the (G'/G) - expansion method and the homogeneous balance method. Then the biostatistical models which involve several variables including soil moisture content, soil depth and timescales were assumed according to the exact solutions of Semi-empirical Richards equation. At least one antibiotic was detected in all the soil water and poultry manure samples.
    Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure.
    Kennady Vijayalakshmy*, Meenakshi Virmani, Rakesh Malik, K Rajalakshmi and Kasthuri S
    Vitamins are one of the key essential nutrients that help in maintaining the normal health status of the animals. The dietary supplementation of vitamins are highly necessary for the normal functioning of the animals. Deficiency of vitamins in the diets can have various deleterious effects on the animal health and also in reproduction. Vitamin B or B-group vitamins also have various potential role in maintaining the normal well being of animals. The present review reveals the role of different B-vitamins and the deficiency symptoms associated with the B-vitamins.
    Tekalign Tadesse* and Amanuel Bekuma
    Tumors are complex entities that continue to challenge modern medicine to develop more effective cancer therapies. Oncolytic virotherapy is a relatively new and thriving field of therapy targeted towards curing cancer by using the infamous viruses to selectively infect and kill tumor cells. Better resistance and specificity to tumor cells as well as their multiple mechanisms of cytotoxicity compared to contemporary means of 9oncotherapy present oncolytic virotherapy as a fascinating and viable field of scientific inquisition in the persistence battle with cancer. Even though it is state of the art in cancer therapy, virotherapy has some fall shorts. This include activation of the immune system to oncolytic viruses, inability to remove all metastatic cells, demands of combination therapy for real efficacy and, lack of cell culture and animal tumor models that accurately reflect the characteristics of cancerous tissues in human patients. To overcome these constraints, detailed understanding about manipulation of: the viral genetic makeup, biology of abnormally growing tumor cells and the complex system of the host’s natural immune response mechanisms for their tumor selectivity and mechanisms of action is necessary.
    Original Article
    Anto Vrdoljak*, Olga Zorman Rojs, Gert Jan Boelm, and Lana Ljuma Skupnjak
    Vaccination of chickens using live attenuated vaccines is still the principal method used for control and prevention of infectious bursal disease(IBD) in chickens. All aspects of development, production, quality control and use of modern vaccines are comprehensively regulated by the national and trans-national guidelines. Detailed in vitro characterization, safety and efficacy of a new live attenuated vaccine against IBDwas evaluated in this work in compliance with the current European Union regulations. In vitro characterization confirmed that the vaccine strain belongs to intermediate strains with high degree of homology with the existing vaccine strains of the same virulence. General safety of the vaccine was demonstrated in specific pathogen free (SPF) and seropositive chickens. No significant immunosuppression against immunization with live Newcastle disease vaccine was detected in birds previously vaccinated with the IBD vaccine candidate. Vaccine virus was able to spread at least 3 times from vaccinated to naive chickens, without inducing morbidity and mortality. A single amino acid change at position H253Q was detected in the VP2 gene after 5 in-vivo passages. Complete protection against challenge with very virulent IBD virus was demonstrated in laboratory trials using SPF and seropositive chickens. Field trials on commercial broilers and layers confirmed the satisfactory safety and efficacy profile of the vaccine. These data demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the novel vaccine candidate but also illustrate by an example the regulatory pathway and complexity of the contemporary vaccine development process in the regulated environment.
    Masoud Ghorbani and Ramin Farhoudi*
    In a recurrence, the levels of superoxide dismutase enzymes (SOD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), the levels of hemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (PCV) were measured) in 20 healthy dogs and 30 dogs with heart disease (control).
    The mean SOD values between healthy and diseased dogs showed a significant difference. SOD concentration was significantly decreased in sick dogs as compared to healthy dogs. Whereas, LDH, GOT and GPT enzymes concentration were significantly increased in dogs with heart failure as compared with the control. However, the mean values of HB and PCV showed no significant differences between the groups of dogs. There was also a significant correlation between SOD, age and PCV value in diseased dogs.
    In healthy dogs, there was no significant correlation between SOP values and other factors. The deficiency of the SOD enzyme over time generates free radicals such as free O2 molecules and reduces the neutralization of these free radicals resulting in the damage to the specific organ such as heart and causing heart disease.
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