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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Vladimir Shimalov*
    The problem of helminth zoonoses, the influence of their causative agents on human health is discussed.
    Peyman Dehghan Rahim abadi*, Hamidreza Moslemi, Mohammad Hassan Naji zadeh, Hannaneh Golshahi, and Deebaa Golchin
    Ocular squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common ocular tumor in horses, which is not frequently reported. The etiology of the OSCC is multifactorial. Exposure to UV light and lack of periocular pigmentation are considered to be predisposing factors. In horses, conjunctiva and nictitating membrane are most frequent sites for OSCC. A definitive diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. In our report, an eleven years old, white crossbred gelding was referred to teaching hospital of Garmsar University with notable mass on the third eyelid of the right eye. Physical examination revealed a fleshy yellowish white mass with fragile texture and rancid odor, of about 2cm width on the third eyelid. All vital signs were within normal limit. Ancillary test were done and then the patient were qualified for a surgical treatment. Under Anesthesia the mass was removed and submitted to pathologic laboratory. Histopathological examination revealed that infiltrating keratinocytes formed multiple islands and nests of neoplastic cells. These cells had polygonal shape and intercellular bridges between keratinocytes were noticeable. There were eosinophilic materials in the center of the islands identified as keratin pearls. According to mentioned characteristics, squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. According to literature, OSCC is more often seen in horses that are exposed to sunlight at long duration periods. Considering that Garmsar is located in desert and arid regions of Iran (34?/ 52?), it has a high sunshine duration. Postoperative examination on days 15, 30, 90, and 120 revealed no signs of tumor recurrence or other complications. The patient's vision was pretty normal.
    Research Article
    Anto Vrdoljak*, Mate Halas, and Tamas Suli
    Proper vaccination using quality live and inactivated vaccines may significantly reduce incidence and severity of outbreaks of New castle disease (ND), a highly contagious disease of poultry. In this work, the efficacy and interference with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) of live vaccine based on the Hitchner B1 strain of ND was tested in commercial broilers. Vaccine was applied via either spray or oral route at day 1 (spray route) or day 7 (oral route). Birds were challenged by either intramuscular injection or by eye-drop application of a virulent strain of NDV 2-5 weeks after vaccination. Broilers vaccinated via spray route showed 90-100% protection when challenged with the virulent ND virus (vNDV) already 2 weeks after the vaccination, while protection among orally vaccinated hatchmates was 60-80%. By the 5th week protection reached 90-100% in both groups. The performance of ND vaccine was not affected by the MDA. Protection of vaccinated birds was significantly higher than in non-vaccinated controls throughout the study. Intramuscular challenge consistently resulted in lower protection rates than the eye-drop challenge route.
    Conclusion: Vaccination of 1-7 days old broilers with live attenuated ND vaccine provides significant protection against field vNDV, despite the presence of MDA. An intramuscular challenge route may not be the optimal practice for studies involving vNDV as it does not imitate the natural infection route and significantly undervalues the contribution of local and cellular immunity.
    Gert Jan Boelm*, de Wit JJ (Sjaak), and Lana Ljuma Skupnjak
    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious viral disease of chickens, resulting in animal discomfort and economic damage caused by production loss and instalment of interventions. Protection against IB is normally provided in young chicks by passive maternally acquired immunity and active immunity induced by early vaccination. The most widely used IBV vaccine strain is H120, which is administered to chicks in the first week of their life. At this age, the potential interference of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) with vaccines may hamper the development of active immunity. In this study, the onset and duration of immunity and the interference of MDAs on the immunogenicity of a live attenuated IB H120 vaccine was assessed. Broilers with and without MDA to IB virus were vaccinated by spray, eye-nose-drop, orally (mimicking drinking water vaccination) or were left non-vaccinated. At three different time points after vaccination, antibody levels to IB virus, and ciliary activity of tracheal explants were measured to assess the efficacy of the vaccine against challenge. No correlation between serum antibody titers and protection could be established, suggesting that local and cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in preventing IBV infections in young birds. There was no influence of MDAs on the vaccination by any of administration methods tested, as judged by level of protection against challenge using ciliostasis scores.
    Short Communication
    Sonnet Poddar* and Tuli Dey
    Wing vein and shank vein are two clinically important veins in non-descript deshi chicken. Twenty wings and legs from ten dissected non-descript deshi chickens of different age group were studied. Wing vein and shank vein were always present and they were single in number in each wing and leg. Several metacarpal veins get together to formed wing vein at proximal to the radio-ulnar - metacarpal joint and run deep to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. It became subcutaneous ventral to the humero-radioulnar joint and clearly visible through skin. It was more superficial, larger and easily visualized in older non-descript deshi chicken than younger one. Shank vein of leg was largest and superficial at the medial side of tarsometatarsus in older non-descript deshi chicken than younger one. It runs beneath the scaly covering of the foot. Those topographic anatomical findings will enrich the knowledge of clinician and it indicates that wing vein and shank vein are most convenient site to obtain blood samples easily.
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