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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Mohamed A Nazih* and Mohamed W El-Sherif
    The mandibular alveolar nerve at the point of entry at the mandibular foremen was anatomically determined in bovine in order to reach and desensitize the nerve via the oral cavity. The Mandibular nerve provides sensation to the check teeth, tongue and mandible. Desensitization of the mandibular alveolar nerve enables surgeons to perform procedures effectively and safely in these structures. Extra and intraoral approaches of the mandibular alveolar nerve block are well recognized in human and horses. An intraoral approach to the mandibular alveolar nerve in bovine was presented in the present study based on the anatomical findings. It is hypothesized that the approach was reliable, applicable and safer than the extraoral method.
    Abdinasir Yusuf Osman*, Muhammad Luqman Nordin, Arifah Abdul Kadir and Abdul Aziz Saharee
    Caseous lymphadenitis is one of the most significant zoonotic diseases caused by C. pseudotuberculosis with enormous economic losses in animal industry worldwide. The global burden of its incidence in animal populations remains at an alarming rate. The impact of the disease is multidimensional in nature and not always well understood, therefore, significantly complicating effective policy response. The pathogenesis is complex and governed by several factors working together in synergistic manner. Information related to the epidemiology and pathophysiology is still scarce in the database and control programmes are rarely implemented. Therapy is based on wide spectrum antibiotics with mysterious outcome as pre-existing vaccines appear not promising. Thus, understanding the biological behaviour of the disease becomes a fundamental issue. In this review, we highlight various key aspects of the disease with special reference to the epidemiology and the pathophysiology of the disease in sheep and goat populations.
    Xunde Li, Tamara Vodovoz, Chengling Xiao, Joan D. Rowe, and Edward R. Atwill*
    An epidemiological study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and intensity of fecal shedding of oocysts in sheep and to identify risk factors in sheep farms in California, USA. A total of 798 fecal samples from 372 adult ewes, 31 yearlings, and 395 lambs were collected from 16 ranches in central and northern California. Quantitative detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in feces were performed using a direct immunofluorescent assay. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 30.6% (121/395) in lambs, 16.1% (5/31) in yearlings, and 3.2% (12/372) in adult ewes. High prevalence was observed in 60-day old [37.4% (61/163)] and 90-day old [38.3% (41/107)] lambs. Infected lambs and adult ewes shed up to 6.8 ×106and 1 ×106oocystsper animal per day, respectively. Farm management practices, flock, and sheep information were collected from each ranch during each sampling event and used for statistical analysis of risk factors associated with the prevalence of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Access to surface sources of drinking water (odd ratio=1.8) and contact with cattle (odd ratio=3.8) significantly increased the fecal shedding of oocysts in sheep of all ages. The odds of fecal shedding of oocysts in lambs decreased as the number of ewes increased in the flock and the odds of fecal shedding of oocysts in adult ewes decreased as the pasture size increased. Fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts was not significantly associated with diarrhea in sheep.
    Importance: Cryptosporidium is an important parasite infects a wide range of vertebrates including livestock. Cryptosporidium infection in sheep impacts animal health and fecal shedding of oocysts impacts environmental health. Studying the prevalence and risk factors of fecal shedding Cryptosporidium in sheep is an important part of controlling the infection and protecting the health of sheep and the environment. This work not only determined variable prevalence of Cryptosporidium in lambs, yearlings and ewes in sheep farms and shedding intensity and environmental loading rate, but also identified accessing to surface water and contacting with cattle increased the odds of sheep infection.Incorporating this information to beneficial management practices can reduce the fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium in sheep and subsequently reduce environmental loading of this parasite.
    Research Article
    Fufa Abunna*, Addisu Bedashu, Takele Beyene, Dinka Ayana, Berhane Wakjira, Ashenafi Feyisa, and Reta Duguma
    A cross-sectional study was conducted on dairy farms and cattle slaughtered in Adama municipal abattoir in Adama town from October 2013- April 2014 to isolate, identify and assess antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Salmonella in abattoir and dairy farms. A total of 182 samples consisting of feaces from farm (n= 36), bucket milk (n=36), tank milk (n= 6), tank swab (n= 4), bucket swab (n= 5), hand swab from milker (n= 6), feaces from abattoir (n= 24), mesenrtic lymph node swab (n= 24), carcass swab (n= 27), pooled knife swab (n = 5), pooled hanging material swab (n= 5) and hand swab from butcher (n= 5) were collected separately. The samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella following the standard techniques and recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) via culturing on bacteriological media and testing using a series of biochemical tests. Accordingly, out of a total of 182 samples, 11(6.04%) were Salmonella positive in that 1(3.7%) in carcass swab, 3(12.5%) in mesenteric lymph node swab, 1(20%) in pooled knife swab, 3(12.5%) in feaces from abattoir and 3(8.6%) in feaces from farm. No statistical significant association (p>0.05) could be obtained between bacteriological status of sample sources and sample types. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was undertaken using disc-diffusion test. All of the isolates were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobials. Out of 11 isolates that were tested for antimicrobials 10(91%) of them were resistant to at least one or more antimicrobial agents. An isolates was considered as multiple drug resistant if it is resistant for 3 and more drugs. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were demonstrated for 6(54.5%) of isolates. Most frequent resistance was encountered for Streptomycin (72.7%), Cefoxitin (63.6%) and followed by Ampicillin (54.5%). Results of this study showed that Salmonella were spread in abattoir equipment, cattle feaces and mesenteric lymph node. The study also indicated the need for further studies to determine risk factors associated with the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella. Furthermore, appropriate measures should be taken to reduce its infection and contamination in dairy farm and thereby minimize the potential food-borne Salmonella infection in man.
    Case Report
    Tuli Dey*, Bibek Chandra Sutradhar, Bhajan Chandra Das, and Sonnet Poddar
    The study was planned to perform surgical management of large abdominal hernia in a male goat. An intact 3 months old local male goat was presented at SAQTVH, CVASU with complaint of swelling at ventral abdomen immediately after umbilicus near prepucial area. The swelling was noticed by owner before one month which was gradually increased in size. The swelling was firm, non-painful and reducible on palpation, with a large hernial ring measuring about >6 cm in width. After routine blood examination, surgical site was aseptically prepared and patient was stabilized with fluid therapy to maintain operative fluid loss. Under sedation and local anaesthesia, an elliptical incision was performed at hernia site to avoid prepucial opening. Abdominal content was separated from overlying muscles and fascia and mild adhesion of abdominal content was excluded by blunt dissections. After reducing abdominal content with gentle pressure, herniorrhaphy was performed by using sterilized silk with a horizontal mattress pattern between hernia ring and abdominal wall. Proper post-operative care with antibiotic and analgesic therapy was maintained for next five days and complete recovery with proper healing was found after 10 days of operation without any complications.
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