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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 5, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Jessica Petrakovsky*, and Andrea Antonuci
    The concept of "One Health" starts from the awareness of the important possibilities that exist to protect public health through policies aimed at preventing and controlling the pathogens present in animal populations, acting at the interface between people, animals and the environment. Controlling zoonotic pathogens at their animal source is the most effective and economic way of protecting people. A "One Health" approach to leptospirosis control is essential because human infection almost invariably results either from direct animal exposure or from contaminated environments. Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. It is to be controlled because it is extremely difficult to eradicate. The prevention of animal leptospirosis directly impacts the incidence/prevalence of the human disease. The main control measures in veterinary medicine are vaccination, hygienic-sanitary measures and epidemiological surveillance. Veterinary Services, in both their public and private components, play an essential role in the development and implementation of policies to manage animal health risks. In conclusion, the control of zoonoses requires the joint work of several sectors, which involve human and animal public health, contemplating the care of the environment.
    Review Article
    Marina Pinheiro de Castro, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Ilana Teruskin Balassiano, Tatiane Mendes Varela, and Martha Maria Pereira*
    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis which has been recently recognized as a paradigm to the One Health approach due to the interface of human-animal-environment observed in the transmission cycles. A total of 40 opossums identified as Didelphis aurita were captured at the Campus FIOCRUZ within the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to evaluate their possible role as carriers of Leptospira spp. The 40 serum samples were submitted to the microagglutination test using a panel of 19 reference strains. Kidney fragments of 13 animals out of 40 were used to perform PCR and standard procedures to isolate leptospires in culture. The percentage of positive sera was 10% (4 out of 40). The PCR showed 4 positive kidney samples out of 13 (31%). Two strains were isolated in culture medium (15.4%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of both isolates did not show a 100% match with any other sequence types deposited at the database used (http://pubmlst.org/leptospira/). The closest match of one isolate was with ST 177 represented by one strain of L. santarosai and the closest match of the other isolate was with STs 166 and 171 represented by strains of L. noguchii. It is the first report indicating the potential of opossums Didelphis aurita as a carrier of Leptospira spp.
    Joao Carlos Gomes Borges*, Danielle dos Santos Lima, Vitor Luz Carvalho, Miriam Marmontel, Rodrigo de Souza Amaral, Stella Maris Lazzarini, Victor Fernando Santana Lima, and Leucio Camara Alves
    Infections caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are among the main gastro enteric diseases affecting a large number of animals and humans. Oftentimes the disease is asymptomatic, which may render the diagnosis involving aquatic mammals difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an immunological technique with parasitological methods in the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in aquatic mammals. A total of 553 fecal samples and intestinal contents of mustelids, cetaceans and sirenians were submitted to laboratory processing. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified with Kinyoun's technique. Giardia cysts were identified using the centrifugation-flotation method. All samples underwent immunological tests through direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA). The Kappa Index k was used to measure the agreement between techniques used for the detection of each parasite addressed in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, real prevalence, estimated prevalence, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, correct classification and incorrect classification were evaluated. Cryptosporidium were found in Pteronurabrasiliensis [10/24 (41.66%)], Trichechus inunguis [22/131 (16.79%), Lontra longicaudis [48/314 (15.28%)], Trichechus manatus [04/29 (13.79%)] and Sotalia guianensis [03/31 (9.67%)]. Giardia was identified in Kogia breviceps [01/01 (100%)], Pteronurabrasiliensis [07/24 (29.16%)], Kogia sima [01/04 (25%)], Trichechus manatus [04/29 (13.79%)], Sotalia guianensis [03/31 (9.67%)], Lontra longicaudis [30/314 (9.55%)] and Trichechusinunguis [05/131 (3.81%)]. The k value for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium was 0.86; for Giardia cysts the k-value was 0.27. Therefore, the direct immunofluorescent technique demonstrated greater sensitivity both in the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia where the combination of more than one laboratory technique is recommended.
    SP Angel, JP Amitha, VP Rashamol, GD Vandana, ST Savitha, A Afsal, M Bagath, G Krishnan, and V Sejian*
    Climate change has far-reaching consequences on several sectors of agriculture. Cattle production within animal agriculture is one of the most susceptible sectors for the devastating effects of climate change. Climate change associated heat stress negatively impacts cattle production both directly and indirectly. Heat stress reduces the feed intake which ultimately reduces the body weight, average daily gain and body condition scoring in cattle. Further, heat stress associated reduced feed intake also affects the milk production, meat production and reproduction in cattle. The high producing cattle are more vulnerable to heat stress than the low producing animals. Livestock exhibits a wide range of adaptive mechanisms to cope with environmental challenges. The classical adaptive mechanisms include morphological, behavioral, physiological, neuroendocrine, blood biochemical and cellular responses that act in coordination to promote the welfare and favour their survival in a specific environment. The detailed studies on these adaptive mechanisms have identified respiration rate, rectal temperature, Hb, PCV, cortisol, thyroid hormones to be reliable phenotypic markers and HSP70 as a confirmatory genotypic biomarker to assess the impact of heat stress in dairy cattle.
    Research Article
    Nihal Dogan*
    Background: Enteric protozoon infections in children are related to morbidity and mortality in the worldwide. Cryptosporidium spp. is a zoonotic infection, now being recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Current modes of cryptosporidiosis diagnosis involve procedures which are costly and require both a well-equipped laboratory and technical expertise. Our aim was to evaluate the performances of the unidentified Cryptosporidium spp. presence during routine parasitological examinations and diagnostic methods.
    Methods: 1050 stool samples were collected in children who visited the University hospital with abdominal pain and diarrhea complaints, and additionally selected from seven different regions in primary school students. All stool specimens were examined macroscopically and microscopically by direct microscopic examination, and also were examined by Modified ZiehlNeelsen [mZN] staining method. Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] and Multiplex PCR methods could only be used in 450 stool specimens selected from samples showing suspect cyst structures and watery stool specimens on direct microscopic examinations [to the extent that is possible].
    Results: We detected, that of the 450 stool specimens examined by mZN stain with microscopic examination 39 [3.7%] are defined Cryptosporidium. Spp oocysts. Working on 450 stool samples with ELISA and multiplex PCR results respectively; in 28 [7.5%] by ELISA, and in 2 [0.4 %] by Multiplex PCR is defined positive Cryptosporidium spp ..Only 2 cases with positive results were detected with 3 methods used in the diagnosis.
    Conclusions: Microscopy is the reference standard method for routine diagnosis in stool intestinal parasites, but it requires experience. There are growing interests in the alternative methods due to the limitations of microscopic examination since it requires more time and experienced users. At least two methods must be used together for the diagnosis and attention should be paid to the selection and implementation of the methods.
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