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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 5, Issue 5
    Review Article
    Tadashi Takino, Yuko Kato-Mori, Takenori Orihashi and Katsuro Hagiwara*
    Bovine rotavirus is the causative agent of diarrheal disease in calf, which is characterized by atony of the small intestinal wall and growth impairment, resultingin largeeconomic losses. The diarrheal infection also changes the commensal intestinal microbiome. The intestinal Microbiome balance in calves partially affects the innate immune system and plays an important role in prevention of pathogenic microbe infection. In this study, we investigated the changes in intestinal Microbiome composition of rotavirus-infected calves using metagenomics analysis. We collected feces samples from 16 calves at 14, 28, and 42 days after birth. Four of these calves developed diarrhea after 28 days. These calves and four other calves were diagnosed with rotavirus infection after 28 days. Fecal metagenomic analysis at the onset of the illness showed high Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio compared to the ratio in uninfected calves. The intestinal microbiomecomposition returned to normal levels 2 weeks after the onset of illness. The number of Prevotellaceae family members in Bacteroidetes increased in the healthy calves after 28 days; however, the rotavirus infection prevented similar increase in calves of the same age. These results indicate that rotavirus infection affects intestinal microbiome composition, which is important for the development of calf digestive organs.
    Tulloch F, Luke GA, and Ryan MD*
    Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is one of the most commonlyreported OIE-listed pathogens. FMDV is one of the most contagious mammalian viruses known to man: the virus is endemic in many developing countries causing substantial economic loses and the restriction of international trade in animals/animal products. The virus infects domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats), but also a wide range of wild-life species, the latter forming reservoirs of disease. The need to diagnose FMDV infections (serotype/strain identification) and vaccine production/testing requires expensive, high disease security/containment facilities. Chemically inactivated (‘killed') vaccines have been available for decades, but the huge genetic diversity of this virus (7 serotypes with 1000s of subtypes) and the need to periodically re-vaccinate animals to maintain protective levels of antibodies argue for the development of new vaccines. Indeed, in the early 1990s, on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis, the European Union replaced the policy of routine vaccination using the inactivated vaccine with disease control via mass-slaughter of infected and surrounding susceptible animals (plus vaccination in extremis). For various reasons mass-slaughter is unacceptable in many developing countries so in their case vaccination, in one form or another, is the only way forward. In the past few years there have been exciting developments in the production of new types of vaccine and many hold great prospects for improving disease control, but the thesis of this paper is that only the development of a new type of vaccine – live, attenuated, FMDV strains, offers the prospect of eradicating FMDV.
    Research Article
    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco*, Guilherme Mulinari Cardoso, Jayme Augusto Peres, Karin Werther, Marcos Vinicius Almeida Morais, Mario Henrique Alves, Meire Christina Seki, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, and Edison Luiz Durigon
    Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild birds, highly contagious and can cause acute mortality in some species. Little is known about transmission and behaviour of the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in avian species, particularly in free-living species and with the exception of commercial birds, which is extremely important owing to the possible ease of contact between free-living species and commercial birds. The purpose of ND diagnosis is to guide the decisions to control the disease and thus prevent the spread of the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate immunological (immunohistochemical) and molecular techniques Real Time RT PCR (rRT-PCR) in the diagnosis of Newcastle disease in free-living bird tissue samples. A total of 150 birds belonging to14orders and 46 avian species were evaluated. Positive immunoblotting for NDV in at least one of the evaluated tissues was found in 43 (28.6%) of the 150 birds tested and 110 (71.4%) were negative by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NDV. Regarding the results of Real Time RT PCR (rRT-PCR), only one positive sample was recorded for the class 2 NDV from the trachea of ??a specimen of striped owl (Asioclamator). Therefore, it is essential to carry out epidemiological monitoring, with a constant characterization of circulating viral samples in free-living birds, especially in regions of high poultry production, to identify possible biosecurity measures that could prevent outbreaks in commercial poultry.
    Mola Selemon*
    Small ruminant livestock, such as sheep and goats, are extremely susceptible to internal Parasites, especially gastrointestinal nematodes. Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favors the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favorability. Barber's pole worm is singly the most important of all the gastrointestinal nematodes that affect the survival and productivity of shoat owned by rural poor farmers in the developing world. Barber's pole worm which is called Haemonchus contortus by its scientific name is highly pathogenic blood sucking parasite. Haemonchus contortus is highly pathogenic blood sucking parasite. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Contortus is active mainly in warm, humid climates in the summer months. High levels of prevalence, intensity and abundance of these parasites were generally observed around the middle of the two rain seasons, with peaks occurring in May and September of the year. There are number of factors such as poor nutrition, concurrent disease, stress, overstocking, or pregnancy/lactation can cause a loss of immunity to parasites. Haemonchosis can be diagnosed based up on the characteristic clinical sign of anemia, Submandibular edema, weight loss, and ill thrift along with finding large numbers of eggs in the feces. It causes great loss in sheep and goat farm. To prevent this problem the owner or farmer and veterinarian should work effectively. They should be prevent pasture contamination on larval stage in early spring via timely and planned treatment strategies, rotate different doses of drugs on animal basis, avoid under dosing antihelminthic, utilize safe pasture treatment and move shames.
    Short Note
    Leticia Nishi*
    The number of studies and papers about the interaction dynamics between parasitism and pollution in environmental hasbeen increase. Among the aspects investigated we found the combined effects of pollution on the health of aquatic organisms, effects of pollution on the presence and distribution of parasites. Environmental pollution is a concern worldwide.
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