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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 5, Issue 8
    Research Article
    Mahamadou Seyni Yansambou*, Ana Cristina Ferreira, Rianatou Bada-Alambedji, and Ana Botelho
    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease affecting cattle and buffalo caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspmycoides. This disease is endemic in many countries of West Africa. This study reviews the distribution of CBPP outbreaks in West Africa from 2005 to 2017 and includes updated data from Niger where the disease is not well documented. In particular it provides a first account of the serological prevalence of CBPP in the region of Niamey in Niger. Sera from 987cattlefrom this region, comprising 912 belonging to 43 herds distributed in five communes and 75 sera from a notified CBPP outbreak, were screened for CBPP using competitive enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay test (c-ELISA) and complement fixation test (CFT), and immune blotting (IBT) for confirmation of positives.
    The c-ELISA screening test indicated an estimated sero-prevalence in the Niamey region of 6.8% (62/912) at individual level, and 58.1% at herd level. The CFT appeared less sensitive detecting, only 1.6% (15/912) positive sera. Positive sera in both tests were further tested by IBT of which18.2% (14/77) were confirmed positive. Serological testing of the CBPP outbreak revealed73.3% (55/75) and 62.7% (47/75) positive in c-ELISA and CFT, respectively. The IBT confirmed the infection in 60.0% of the animals (45/75 cattle).
    In our study the c-ELISA proved to be more sensitive than CFT. However, c-ELISA detected mainly animals in chronic stages while CFT was able to detect recent infections. Ideally, c-ELISA and CFT should be used in parallel for screening CBPP but IBT, showing a higher specificity, should be used for confirmation of the infection.
    Lucia Azocar-Aedo*, Gustavo Monti, and Ronald Jara
    Background: Infection by Leptospira is relevant in canine medicine. However, prospective studies about leptospirosis in dogs are scarce worldwide.
    Methods: A prospective study among owned domestic dogs from southern Chile was performed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test: 1) to estimate the rate of serological conversion for anti-Leptospira antibodies in a 6 to 9 month follow-up period, 2) to determine the reactive serovars and, 3) to measure antibody titers in seropositive dogs. There were two samplings: in the first, 192 animals were sampled and 50 re-sampled dogs constituted the second.
    Results: The rate of serological conversion in the follow-up period was 12.0% (95% Confidence Interval=2.9-21.0%). In the first sampling, the most reactive serovars were Ballum and Canicola. In the second sampling, the most reactive serovar was Icterohaemorragiae. In both samplings, the antibody titers ranged between 1:100 and 1:800, with predominance titers of 1:100 and 1:200.
    Conclusions: The relatively high rate of serological conversion suggests that the exposure to Leptospira in dogs is present in southern Chile, with a possible endemic presentation of the seropositivity. Preventive measures such as vaccination and to reduce the exposition of pet dogs to reservoirs of the bacteria must be taken, as well to increase the awareness about Leptospira infection among public health institutions, veterinary practitioners and dog owners.
    Hui Dong, Qiping Zhao, Shunhai Zhu, Hongyu Han, Bing Huang*
    The prevalence of coccidial infection in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from Shanghai was examined in May 2017. A total of 254 fecal samples (210 from meat pigeons and 44 from homing pigeons) were examined; oocysts were identified to the species level based on morphological features. The overall prevalence of coccidian infection was 52.8% (134/254), with prevalence of 55.2% (116/210) for meat pigeons and 40.9% (18/44) for homing pigeons. 5 species of Eimeria were identi?ed, namely, Eimeria labbeana, E .kapotei, E. duculai, E. columbae and E. columbarum. The most common Eimeria species in meat pigeons and homing pigeon pigeons was E. labbeana and E. columbarum, respectively. E. duculai, was recorded for the first time in pigeons in China. Concurrent infection with 2-5 species was common. The results of the present investigation have implications for the control of coccidial infections in domestic pigeons in Shanghai.
    Review Article
    Solomon Mekonnen, Bashahun Gebremichael*, and Alemayehu Gela
    Background: The agrochemical toxicity to honey bees is a serious problem when there is contamination of hive products and environments which perish honey bee colonies due to different agrochemicals like pesticide exposure. However, little is known about the side effect of agrochemicals in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess honeybee colony and production status linked with the use of agrochemicals.
    Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from November 2017 to March 2018 on 130 purposively selected farmers of Ejere district of West Shoa zone to assess honeybee colony and production status linked with the use of agrochemicals.
    Results: From a total of 130 respondents interviewed, 97.7% of them believed with decreasing of their bee colonies. Majority (99.2%) of the farmers were utilizing different agrochemicals to prevent and control crop pests, weeds, rust and house pests. However, the colony status was not significantly (P>0.05) different across education level, awareness and age of bee keeprs. Only 6.9% of the respondents had ever attended trainings on honeybee poisoning ways.
    Conclusions: Application of different agrochemicals like pesticides were highly practicing in the study area and which situations shown to affect the colony of honeybee and production. Thus, an urgent intervention is required to mitigate challenges encountering to honeybees and production resulting from the use of chemicals.
    Joseph M. Cummins*
    The safety and efficacy of orally administered interferon (IFN) have been reported in cattle. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and other diseases of cattle can be successfully treated with oral IFN. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) cannot replicate in the presence of IFN and has mechanisms to inhibit host cell IFN production. Clinical data suggest that orally administered IFN is a viable approach for providing antiviral immunity to livestock exposed to viruses such as FMDV.
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