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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 7, Issue 1
    Perspective
    Adem Kumbe*, Birhanu Bekele, Beshir Hussien, Anaf Onate, and Bikila Negasa
    In Yabello Pastoral and Dryland Agriculture Research Center Dairy Research Team have several contributions in identifying major constraints and developing suitable production technologies related to dairy production in its mandated Borana pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Accordingly, the team has conducted researches on livestock disease, dairy cattle nutrition, breeding, milk and milk product handling and processing and marketing of dairy and dairy products. Milk is a marketable commodity whereby consumers buy when they get satisfied by the quality of the product based on their perception. Having a due attention to total quality aspects of milk production and consumption; quality detection and safety precautions became of paramount importance.
    In wrapping the container and soaking in water technology, milk containers were wrapped with sisal foil over the total body up to the neck level and soaked in water before adding the milk to the container. Then milk is added to the container and transported to the market. The wrapping of container with sisal foil and soaking in the water has a valuable effect in maintaining the quality of milk hygiene in transportation. The manual can be important reference for the dairy processing cooperative, pastoral community involved in milk transportation to market and individual milk seller during camel milk transportation to the market. In this manual, important justification about the sisal foil, input material, method of using sisal foil wrapped container and effective result is included. Furthermore, from this manual the effect of sisal foil wrapped milk containers on quality parameters of camel milk transportation is clearly sorted and will solve the problem of milk spoilage, deterioration of milk hygiene and improve quality parameter during transportation to the market. Lastly, the exact usage of this technology manual will help in milk quality monitoring of the milk involved in the market transported to long distance
    Research Article
    Begna Bulcha*, Hika Waktole, Fufa Abunna, Zerihun Asefa and Gezahagni Mamo
    Background: Brucellosis is a contagious, zoonotic and economically important bacterial disease of worldwide distribution. Bovine brucellosis usually caused by Brucella abortus and occasionally by B. melitensis and B. Suis, is one of the economically and publically important diseases for dairymen among others.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected dairy farms in and around Adama town, central Ethiopia, from December, 2017 to May 2018 to determine sero-prevalence of Brucella infection in dairy cattle, identify associated risk factors for the seropositivity and to evaluate the knowledge and practice of the owners. A total of 384 dairy cattle from 42 herds were included in the study. Mixed design of purposive and random sampling method were used for sampling at each farm during blood collection, and risk factors accessed via interviewee of the farm owners, animal handlers and others. Serum samples collected were screened by Rose Bengal Plate test, and sera found positive were confirmed by complement fixation test.
    Results: An overall individual animal and herd level sero-prevalence was estimated to be 1.04% (95% CI: 0.02, 2.62), 9.5% (95% CI: 0.26, 18.78) respectively. Univariable analysis indicated that abortion history and retained fetal membrane were the major risk factors significantly associated (p< 0.05) with bovine brucellosis seropositivity. The odds of having brucellosis increased by 18.6 times in cow with history of abortion compared to cow without the history, increased by 13.6 times in the animal suffered from retained placenta compared to cow with no retained placenta. Fisher’s exact test statistics indicated that herd size and culling reason were significantly associated with bovine brucellosis (p< 0.05) at herd level. The result of questionnaire survey revealed that the overall awareness about brucellosis (16.7%) and its zoonotic importance (14.28%) among owners was considerably low.
    Conclusion: the overall prevalence obatained in the area is low (1.04%); however, there is probable risk of spread of the disease in the unaffected cattle population, and personnel exposure is high, since there is no awareness about the disease and precaution measures taken in the areas. Thus, the need for implementing feasible and sustainable control measures, and awareness creation about zoonotic brucellosis in the public at the study site were recommended.
    Wario S, Wubishet Z*, and Alemayehu M
    Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the most important parasites diseases of the camel in camel producing areas. It causes substantial economic losses in terms of a decrease in working capacity, growth and productivity to owners and serious diseases in animals. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and to identify associated risk factors of nematode infection of camels in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 to April 2019. The age, sex, body condition, management and herd size of the camels were registered properly as risk factors while collecting fecal samples. Collected fecal samples were labeled properly and transported to Yabello Regional Veterinary Laboratory in the icebox. Samples examined in the laboratory using flotation techniques. From 384 fecal samples 75.0% (288/384) samples were found positive to gastrointestinal nematodes. Coprological investigation revealed that camels in the study area were infested with varieties of nematode parasites. Strongyles were the most prevalent nematode parasites identified with 47.9% prevalence followed by Strongloides species 21.6%, mixed infection 3.2% and Trichuris 2.3 per cent. Age and body condition showed significant association (p<0.05) while sex and herd size had no significance (p>0.05) with the prevalence of nematodes. Overall, the high prevalence of nematode parasites was observed in the study area, which implies nematodes are major constraints of the production and productivity of camels. Therefore, teaching and awareness creation on management and de-worming of camels should be implemented based on to prevention and control of the disease.
    Jara R, Alemayehu M, Wubishet Z, Mesfin T, and Araya M
    Brucellosis is a highly infectious bacterial disease of global significance, which affects a wide variety of animals as well as humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Yabello and Gomole districts of Borena Zone, Oromia Region, and Southern Ethiopia, to determine the seroprevalence of camel brucellosis and associated risk factors in the selected pastoralist area. The two study districts were purposively selected based on their potential camel population and their accessibility due to a lack of sufficient logistics. Totally 368 of camels from selected districts were included in the study. All serum samples were tested and screened serologically using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed using Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (i-ELISA) test. As a result, 46 (12.5%) were the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) reactors in which 11(3%) were confirmed to be positive by using Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (i-ELISA) test. Associated risk factor analysis was also conducted using chi-square and logistic regression analysis. The statistical analysis indicated that body condition score (?2=6.004; p=0.050 and OR=2.503; 95% CI=0.066-95.951),herd size (?2=8.560; p=0.014 and OR=8.195; 95% CI=0.289-232.523), physiological status (?2=19.273; p=0.001 and OR=0.130; 95% CI=0.003-6.686) and history of abortion (?2=29.354; p=0.001 and OR=119.159; 95% CI=5.051-28.818) were statistically significant and the major risk factors for the presence and transmission of the disease between animals as the present study. But age, sex, parity, herd composition, and district (geographical location) were found statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Public awareness towards the diseases was interviewed with the structured questionnaire format and it was noted that most of the pastoralists had no knowledge about zoonotic disease transmission, consequences of consuming raw milk, meat and handling aborted animals without any protective material. In general, camel brucellosis is prevalent in this area of study and public awareness towards zoonotic importance is low. Therefore, fruitful and sustainable work is required from the government, animal health professionals, and other stakeholders in the prevention and control of the disease.
    Adem Kumbe*, Abdurahman Hilo, Fayisa Begna, and Beshir Hussien
    A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2015 to April, 2016 in an around Batu town, East shoa Zone Oromia regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 384 fecal samples from Sheep were collected and examined. Out of this 105 sheep (27.3%) were found to be infected at least by one parasite species. Among a total of 384 examined sheep fecal samples, 86 samples were found positive for Fasciola eggs with an overall prevalence of 22.4%. The prevalence of fasciolosis recorded in the four Peasant Associations (PAs) were 18.8%, 25%, 29.2% and16.7% in Edo Kontola,Worja- Woshgula and Batu respectively. In this study ovine fasciolosis shows statistically significant difference on age, body condition and history of deworming (p<0.05). The difference in Peasant Associations and sex were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Out of 384 coprological examinations, the prevalence of Paramphistomosis was 8.6%, whereas prevalence of paraphistomosis recorded in the four Peasant Associations (PAs) were 8.3% 8.3%, 12.5% and5.2% in Edo Kontola,Worja-Woshgula and Batu respectively. The prevalence of paraphistomosis was not statistically significant in sex, history of deworming (p>0.05). The difference in prevalence among age, body condition was statistically significant. (p<0.05). The co- infestation of two parasites was tried to be seen and their prevalence were 4%, 4%, and 2% in Edo kontola, Worja-Woshgula and Batu respectively. Prevalence of co-infection were statistically insignificant in relation to peasant association, sex and dewormed history of animals (P >0.05). The prevalence of co-infestation statistically significant difference based on age and body condition animals (p<0.05). The relative high prevalence indicated lack of strategic control measures against the diseases and related to the wide marsh areas at grazing site of animals. Strategic anthelmintic treatment with appropriate drugs and reduction in the risk of infection should be upgraded among society.
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