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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 7, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Alexandra Citarova*, and Jana Mojzisova
    During the period 2014 - 2019, we collected data on 102 patients affected by feline panleukopenia from various veterinary clinics throughout the Slovak Republic. The patients were divided by sex and subsequently into two age groups. Of the 102 affected animals, 62 were male cats and 40 were female cats. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.029). Of the 47 affected male cats, 32 were under 6 months of age and 15 were over 6 months of age. The difference between these age groups was statistically significant (p = 0.013). Of the 26 affected female cats, 17 were under 6 months of age and 9 were over 6 months of age. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.117).
    Xunde Li, Elizabeth M Antaki Zukoski, Tran HB Nguyen, Bruce R Hoar, Michele T Jay Russell, and Edward R Atwill*
    Cattle are considered to be a major reservoir host of Shiga-toxin producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Contaminated foods of bovine origin that have been exposed to bovine or wildlife E. coli O157:H7 isolates are important vehicles of human infections, which can lead to the deadly hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of this study was to determine possible dose-dependent pathogen shedding patterns of a wildlife E. coli O157:H7 strain in neonatal calves. We inoculated six calves, 1-2 day old calves, with either 108 or 109 CFU and collected fecal samples for 11 days post-inoculation to determine the shedding patterns of the inoculated E. coli O157:H7. Calves were then euthanized, with tissues collected for culture. One calf inoculated at 108 CFU and both calves inoculated at 109 CFU became infected. The calf inoculated at 109 CFU, which shed the E. coli O157:H7 isolate for the entire 11 days post-inoculation, had a wider distribution of colonized tissues compared to the other 109 CFU and 108 CFU inoculated calves. We conclude that the wildlife strain has a dose-dependent shedding pattern with a calculated infectious dose (ID50) of 108 CFU.
    Duressa R, Wubishet Z*, Getachew D, Gashaw B, Geda S and Addis Kassahun Gebremeskel
    The study designed to determine the prevalence of Gastrointestinal parasites (GIT) parasites and factors associated with occurrence of GIT parasitic infection in indigenous camels managed traditionally. A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019 in Southern Ethiopia. Fecal samples were collected and transported to Yabello Regional Veterinary Laboratory. The feces examined by simple floatation and sedimentation technique to screen the presence of GIT parasite eggs in the feces. Nematodes, Trematodes, Cestodes eggs and Protozoan oocysts were found in fecal samples. Out of the 250 samples, 188 (75.2%) were found to harbor different GIT parasites. Result showed that 67.2% of eggs identified were those of Trichostrongylus followed by Strongyle species (60.45%), Strongloides (25.2%) Nematodirus (8.4%) and Tricuris (7.2%) and Trematodes (Paraphystomum 13.2%) Ceastodes (monezia 5.6%) and Protozoan oocysts (coccidiosis) 9.2%). There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of GIT parasites between age groups (p=0.000, p<0.05). This study revealed that gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites are a major problem of camels in study area. Therefore, more emphasis should be given to appropriate prevention and control options based on detailed epidemiological study, the environment condition and seasons.
    Azafack Kana Dorice, Ngoula Ferdinand*, Kouamo Justin, Tchoffo Herve, Kenne Kaze Linda
    Genetic and environmental factors have been reported to affect ovary characteristics. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metabolic profile on follicular population, oocyte quality and yield in three tropical cattle breeds. Blood and ovaries were collected from 195 zebu cattle (Gudali, Red and White Fulani) aged 3 to 15 years, with body condition score (BCS) of 2.93 £0.65 (1 to 5) during slaughtering. The phases of sexual cycles were divided into proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. In each ovary, the follicle were counted and classified according to their diameter in small (<3 mm), medium (3-8 mm) and large (>8 mm) using an electronic caliper. Oocytes were collected by slicing technique and classified in class I, II, III and IV according to their cumulus investment and cytoplasmic distribution in four groups under a light microscope (400X). The metabolic or biochemical parameters were evaluate in the serum using automate and commercially available kits. Results show that from 390 ovaries, 6642 follicles were counted. The mean number of follicles per ovary was 18.45£0.58 and 15.74£0.48 respectively for right and left ovary. Small, medium and large follicles per cow represented 24.15£0.86; 9.30£0.39 and 0.61£0.05 respectively. The average number of follicles obtained per cow (34.06 £ 13.01) increased significantly with BCS (P<0.05). With the exception of total of class III oocytes, the overall number of follicles and oocytes were significant higher during rainy than dry season (P<0.05). Ovaries with corpus luteum presented fewer follicles than ovaries without corpus luteum. The highest number of large follicles was obtained during estrus phase of sexual cycle and the number of class I and II oocyte were obtain in proestrus. The mean oocyte yield per ovary was 8.34£0.28 and 7.02£0.24 respectively for right and left ovary. The quality of oocyte graded I, II, III and IV were 5.94 £0.19, 3.29£0.16, 2.56 £0.12 and 3.83£1.14 respectively. The average number of selected oocyte for in vitro embryo production represented 9.23£0.35 per cow and the oocyte index was 0.93. At the end of the research, we can easily see that, dry season negatively affect follicular population, oocyte yield and metabolic parameters. Estrus and proestrus are the best phases of the sexual cycle for the emergence of large follicles and good quality oocytes respectively.
    Mohammed KM, Mbaya AW, Ahmed MI, Konto Mohammed, and Falmata Kyari
    The prevalence of haemoparasites of Clarias species in Lake Chad was determined using standard parasitological techniques. Out of the 220 Clarias species collected, 37 [16.8%] were positive for various haemoparasitic infections. The parasites encountered in Clarias were Ichtyobodo species 25 [11.4%] and Dactylosoma species 12 [5.5%]. Infection with Ichtyobodo species was 11[8.3%] among the male Clarias while 14 [15.9%] was encountered among the female. Similarly, no statistical variation was observed between sexes. However, infection with Dactylosoma species was found to be 4 [3.0%] in males and 8 [9.1%] among the females. Ichthyobodo infection was observed to be 16 [13.3%] and 9 [9.0%] among adult and juveniles Clarias, respectively. Meanwhile, Dactylosoma infection were 7 [5.8%] and 5 [5.0%] among the adult and juvenile Clarias, respectively. However, general Sex-wise prevalence showed that female Clarias were significantly [0.001%] more infected 22 [25.0%] than the male 15 [11.4%]. According to age, adults were equally more infected than the juveniles 14 [14.0%]; however, no statistical variation was observed between age group. It is highly imperative to use other screening methods like molecular and serological techniques for more sensitivity and specificity.
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