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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 7, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Meffowoet CP*, Kouam KM, Kana JR, and Tchakounte FM
    This study was designed during the rainy season in order to identify the parasites likely to infest edible snails. 360 Achatina fulica and Archachatina marginata was sampled in the Littoral, Center and West regions of Cameroon. After macroscopic observation of snails, the hepatopancreas, digestive tract, sex organs, slime and haemolymph were isolated. These samples were examined using the flotation techniques and direct rubbing. Of the 360 snails sampled, 213 (59.3%) were infested, that is 147 (82.1%) for A. marginata and 66 (36.7%) for A. fulica respectively. The highest infestation rate was recorded on protozoans (41.4%) followed by nematode (24.7%). The most represented parasites were Trichodina achatinae (23.9%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (16.1%); while the least represented were cyst of Balantidium coli (8.1%), Enteromonas sp. (8.1%), cyst of Isospora sp. (7.8%), larva of Protostrongylus sp. (7.5%), cyst of Cryptosporidium sp. (6.4%), mesocercariae of Alaria sp. (6.4%), larva of Enterobius vermicularis (4.2%), larva of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (2.5%), egg of Hyostrongylus rubidus (1.9%), egg of Globocephallus urosubulatus (1.4), non-identified mite (1.1%), egg of Fasciola sp. (0.3%), egg of Oesophagostomum sp. (0.3%) and egg of Paragonimus westermani (0.3%). Snails from Santchou were more infested (70.6%) followed by those from Wouri (58.3%) and then from Lekie (49.2%).
    Mohammed KM, Konto Mohammed, Sani A, Ahmed MI* and Falmata Kyari
    A total of 200 blood samples were collected at Maiduguri abattoir within a period of five months (March-July, 2001). Out of these, 76 were males and 124 females. The overall prevalence of haemoparasitc infection was found to be 8% (16), with 2.5% Anaplasma specie; Babesia spp constituted 10.5% and Trypanosoma sp 0.5%. Females were found to be more infected (4.5%) than their males (3.5%) counterparts. The infection rates were highest in the months of July (3%) and April (2.5%) while it was low in the rest of the months. It is important to note that other methods of blood screening like molecular and serological techniques other than thick and thin blood smears should be adopted for more sensitivity and specificity. This study highlighted the significance of camels in transmitting ticks and tick-borne diseases among livestock and might stimulate the government to include camels in disease prevention and control surveillance.
    Behablom Meharenet* and Mintesnot Tsegaye
    In tropical Africa, protozoan parasites cause several diseases of social and economic importance. Among protozoan parasites, trypanosomosis is one of the most devastating diseases caused by infection with different species of trypanosomes, which are transmitted primarily by tsetse flies and other hematophagous flies to human, domestic animals and wildlife.
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and the analysis of major contributing risk factors of bovine anemia associated with trypanosomosis infection. From total examined cattle (n= 437) for anemia only 196 had anemia, with an overall prevalence rate of 44.85 per cent. Packed cell volume for all study animals were analyzed to compare the degree of anemia which resulted that, 73.58% (n=39) animals were anemic while 26.42% (n=14) non-anemic from total (n=53) trypanosome infected cattle and, 40.89% (n=157) were anemic from total of n=384 cattle without trypanosome infection. Hence, a significantly higher prevalence rate of anemia (73.58%) was observed in trypanosome infected cattle when compared to non-infected cattle (40.89%) ?2= 20.13, p-value=0.00.
    The overall resulted trypanosomosis prevalence was 12.13%; composed of n= 7.55 % (33), 3.66 % (16) and 0.92% (4) for Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and mixed infection (both Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax), respectively.
    The study concluded that trypanosomosis strongly cause anemia and recommended that controlling anemia was mandatory to maximize cattle production and reproduction, which could be achieved by controlling trypanosomosis and associated risk factors.
    Jonathan F Mosley, Walter L Hurley, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, and Matthew B Wheeler*
    Assessment of the risks associated with exposing non-transgenic animals to transgenic animals is important to the future contributions of transgenic livestock to livestock production and society. Evaluation of the potential for the transfer of a transgene (Tg) from livestock to a non-transgenic animal during parturition, mating, gestation, or lactation is the initial step in a risk assessment. We previously developed and characterized transgenic swine containing a mammary-specific Tg, bovine a-lactalbumin, (Ba-LA) that results in increased milk production in sows. In this study, we wanted to determine whether Ba-LA is expressed in tissues of transgenic swine other than the lactating mammary gland and if the Tg DNA crosses into non-transgenic swine under various physiological and physical conditions. The specific aims addressed in this study were to determine (1) whether the bovine a-lactalbumin protein can be synthesized in any other tissues than the mammary gland of a transgenic sow; (2) whether the Tg can be transferred directly by physical association or contact; (3) whether the Tg can be transferred directly via mating; and (4) whether the Tg can be transferred directly during gestation, parturition, or lactation.
    Review Article
    Etagegnehu Bzuneh, Tewodros Alemneh* and Mebrate Getabalew
    Milk fever (parturient paresis) is a metabolic disturbance or production disease of dairy cows that occur just before or soon after calving due to low calcium (Ca++) level (hypocalcaemia) in the blood. It is associated with the drain of calcium within the fetus and milk during pregnancy and calving, respectively. It can be clinical or sub-clinical based on clinical signs. High producing dairy cows are the most susceptible to milk fever during the peri-parturient period. Milk yield, parity, age, breed, Body Condition Score (BCS), and diet composition of the cows are the most common factors that contribute for the occurrence, incidence and severity of milk fever. Economically, it reduces milk yield and fertility that leads to culling of high producing dairy cows from a herd. Diagnosis of milk fever is based on history taking, clinical examination and laboratory diagnosis. It is commonly treated with oral calcium solutions and intravenous (IV) calcium borogluconate. Prevention of milk fever is economically important to the dairy producers to minimize production losses, death losses and veterinary costs associated with the disease. Multiple strategies have been utilized to prevent hypocalcaemia including feeding anionic salts, low calcium ion diets, vitamin D supplementation, dietary magnesium supplementation, and managing the body condition score of cows during the peri-partum period. Hence, prevention of milk fever is the key to reduce the economic impacts of the diseases in dairy industry.
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