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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 7, Issue 4
    Review Article
    Asad Ali Khaskheli*
    Present review was carried out in order to explore the geographical distribution, prevalence and resistance mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus against methicillin worldwide. Study indicated that Staphylococcus aureus infections in pets are a common problem worldwide. Countries where antibiotics like methicillin is frequently misused, resistance has developed in the host. Resultantly antimicrobial therapy fails. Further, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (SARM) possess a gene mec-A which play key role in the resistance mechanism. These genes have code sequencing GAT GAA ATG ACT GAA CGTCCG ATTA and CAA ATT CCA CATTGT TTC GGT CTAA. However, using PCR this organism can easily detected. The mecA gene is responsible for resistance to methicillin and encoding the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP 2). Researchers also reported that dogs are more infected with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to cats. Human can significantly be infected when by contact with MRSA infected pet. In conclusion, MRSA is a common threat to the pets including cats and dogs throughout the globe and antibiotics misuse is the major reason for that.
    Research Article
    Lalima Gelelcha*
    A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of backyard slaughtering, and to investigate associated risk factors in Hawassa and Yirgalem towns, Sidama Regional state, Ethiopia. Out of 288 respondents in both study areas, 215 (74.65%) and 70 (24.3%) had knowledge about zoonosis and food borne diseases, respectively. Moreover, the knowledge of respondents toward zoonosis significantly varies with educational occupation and income levels (p < 0.05). Thereby, respondents at college level and above, and those work in civil servant having salary above 3,500 birr average monthly income had more knowledge towards zoonosis. The knowledge of respondents towards health problems significantly associated with the towns (p < 0.05). The result reveals that 26.6% and 12% respondents from Hawassa town and Yirgalem, respectively, had knowledge about food borne diseases. The attitudes of respondents willing to use abattoir for sheep and goats had statistically significant association with education level, occupation, and average monthly income (p < 0.05). Respondents at college level and above (87.32% and 78.14%), civil servant (84.56%), and persons earning above 3,500 birr monthly income (85.42%) had more attitudes to use sheep and goats abattoir. Out of the total respondents, 59 (20%) work on slaughtering cattle and 229 (80%) are assigned on slaughtering sheep and goats at their backyards. The practices of respondents significantly associated with family responsibility, sex, religion and occupations (p < 0.05). The current study revealed that there are numerous gaps about knowledge, attitude and practices of the residents regarding to zoonotic disease and abattoir usage that will in turn predisposing them to various health problems mainly to animal origin food borne diseases and other zoonosis. Therefore, educating the wider community about the importance of legal places for slaughtering and the risks associated with the backyard slaughtering is recommended. Moreover, further research should be conducted to fill the research gap in other parts of the country.
    Lily V Davis, Peter W Hellyer, Robin A Downing and Lori R Kogan
    Our goal was to assess gabapentin dosage and tolerability in dogs taking it for chronic pain. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 240 dogs taking gabapentin for chronic pain and systematically assessed: patient signalment, definitive diagnosis, location and description of pain, VAS scores immediately preceding and following the patient's maximum gabapentin dose, maximum gabapentin dosage, presence or absence of side effects related to gabapentin use, use of NSAID/immunomodulator drugs and nutraceuticals, presence or absence of levothyroxine supplementation, surgical procedures, and physical medicine. The range of tolerated gabapentin doses was 6.9 - 500 mg/kg/day [3.1- 227.3 mg/lb], PO, q12h and only 10% of patients experienced the most common side effect of sedation. The data support the hypothesis that gabapentin is a well-tolerated and safe analgesic over a wide range of doses. Gabapentin appears to be tolerated at much higher doses than has been previously described.
    Rahmoun DE*, Barani S and Lieshchova MA
    The Lymph Nodes (LN) of Ouled-djellal sheep in Algeria were the subject of this study in order to establish the anatomo-topographical and histo-cytological characteristics of these organs, thus highlighting the different morpho-functional areas of the parenchyma of these lymph nodes, (somatic and visceral). Thanks to the X-ray, we were able to highlight the circulation of the lymph in situ and see the different compartments of this organ. The standard hematoxylin and eosin staining allowed us to confirm the histological structure developed by radiography. The statistical study of different histological functional areas was carried out by the Point S system created by the laws of mathematics. The sheep lymph node represents a unique autonomous form, corresponds to the lymph node typical of other mammals with sign of a certain fusional orientation, the linear and topographic characteristics generally correspond to parameters similar to the lymph node of cattle. Enveloped by a layer of capsule (CP) which integrates inside the parenchyma forming the trabecula (TR), the nature of the relationship with the extra-lymphatic vessels, the lymph nodes of sheep belong to classic type nodes, in which the afferent lymphatic vessels drain directly into the marginal and efferent sinuses which are located in the area of the sub- grids of the subunits, come from the sinus of the hilum and connected to several large lymphatic vessels which are located next to the largest arteries and veins. The follicles have a very clear structure, each segment presents a unit of deep cortex (DCU), of follicles in the cortical and paracortical zone, which is the external part of the DCU and the Medullary Cord (MC), with cells specific for each zone. Moving towards the reticular nucleus. The base of each Lymphoid Follicle (LF) in the lymph node parenchyma shows the unity of the DCU. The main quantitative morphological features of the structural organization of the lymph nodes in sheep. Among the individual cell areas, the maximum relative lymphoid parenchymal area is typical of DCU and MC, and the minimum of lymph nodes.
    Firew Dawit and Haben Fesseha*
    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 130 dairy farms to identify the major reproductive health problems of dairy cattle in Wolaita Sodo district. The dairy farm owners were interviewed with their own languages and data on dairy reproductive performances, particularly the history of reproductive health problems, were collected. The current finding revealed that the most frequently recorded reproductive health problems were repeat breeding (85.55%), retained fetal membrane (23.3%), anestrous (17.47%), dystocia (12.6%), abortion (10.67%), uterine (6.79%) and vaginal prolapse (3.88%), and pyometra (1.94%). Overall, 55% (57/103) of the farm owners responded that their dairy cows were affected by either one or more of the above reproductive health disorders. In the present study, there was a significant association (p< 0.05) between the educational levels of dairy farm owners and the feeding frequency as well as the health management system of dairy farms. Whereas there was no significant association (p> 0.05) between work experience and farm management practice as well as health management. Thus, repeat breeding was the most common reproductive health problem recorded in the study area that has an impact on the reproductive health of dairy cows. Further studies should be conducted at different blood levels, and awareness is given to farm owners and attendants to improve dairy management with increased parity.
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