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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Volume 7, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Seifu Hailu*
    Calf diarrhea remains the major health challenges in cattle herds and is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to October 2019 to determine the prevalence of E.coli infection in diarrheic calves, investigate potential risk factors of the infection and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli isolates in dairy farms of Holota and its surrounding area, central Ethiopia. A total of 278 diarrheic calves less than three months of age were purposively selected for this study. Fecal samples collected directly from the rectum of calves were subjected to bacteriological culture and biochemical tests to isolate and identify E.coli. The overall prevalence of E. coli infection in diarrheic calves was found to be83.5% (232/278×100).The Odds of isolate rates of E.coli for age group 5-8 week was 5.67 times higher as compared to 9-12 week of age (95% CI of OR = 1.18–27.31,P= 0.031). The odds of E.coli isolate rates from diarrheic calves was lower in calves with mucoid diarrhea as compared to those with bloody diarrhea (OR=0.06; 95% CI, 0.01–0.54; P=0.012). The isolate rates of E.coli was 14.5 times higher in calves that received colostrum within6-12 hour than calves that received at their early life in less than 6 hrs (95% CI: 3.53-60.17,P=0.000). Similarly, the isolate rates of E.coli was 29.5 times higher in calves that received colostrum after 12 hours of life than calves that received colostrum within the first 6 hrs of life (95% CI: 6.77–128.9,P=0.000). The likelihood of E.coli isolation from diarrheic calves was 40.4 times higher in those fed colostrum by hand than those received colostrum via suckling (95% CI: 7.78–210;P= 0.000). E.coli isolates were highly susceptible to Gentamicin (81.82%), sulphamethoxazole (78.79%) and Ciprofloxacin (75.76%), and showed resistance against Streptomycin (81.82%), Tetracycline (60.61%), Ceftriaxone (60.60%) and Cefoxitin (54.55%). It was concluded that E.coli infection is highly prevalent in diarrheic calves < 3 months of age, the majority of which were highly susceptible to Gentamicin, Sulphamethoxazole and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Moreover, dairy farms should implement good calf management and hygienic practices including feeding of sufficient quantity of colostrum within the first 6 hrs of birth to prevent E.coli infection.
    Seifu Hailu* and Adissu Abdeta
    A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2010 to April, 2011 to determine the prevalence of bovine fasiciolosis in Holeta Municipal abattoir. The animals were chosen by a systematic random sampling method among slaughtered cattle. Of the 600 cattle examined in Holeta Municipal abattoir 122 (20.34%) were harboring the parasite of Fasciola. Both species of fasciola were identified during the study period at which F.hepatica was the most prevalent (15.17%) species followed by (3.17%), 1.17% mixed infection by both species and 0.83% immature or unidentified fluke were appreciated at the time. Most cattle were brought from high lands of Ethiopia to the abattoir as intermediate snail of F.hepatica and the parasite species itself survives above 1800m. Worm count was conducted on 122 infected livers revealed a mean fluke count of 70.25 per liver with maximum and minimum fluke count of 152 and 2, respectively. Intensity of liver infection showed that most of the affected livers were lightly infected (38.53%) and severely 29.5% while moderately infected livers had a relative frequency of 32%. Association between Fasciola and body condition was significant (P<0.05). However, age, breed and sex were not associated with the parasite Fasciola.
    Bereket MollaTanga* and AshenafiBediluTessema
    The irrational use of antibiotics is a major problem in present day clinical practices in veterinary interventions, as it results in toxicities and failures of treatment in patients and the emergence of drug resistant pathogens. Maintaining the minimum withdrawal period of antibiotic treated animals’ products and productions is also one of the problems in veterinary intervention, as owners failed to do so. Therefore, this study was designed with objective to assess the use and practice of antibiotic by professionals (veterinarian) and animal owners in and around Hawassa City. The method followed was cross sectional study during November 2018 to May 2019. Interview and questionnaire survey were conducted on 120 animal owners and 30 professionals. The animal health professional and animal owner antibiotic use and practice were evaluated as acceptable or not acceptable on bases of responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials in veterinary practices, Office International des Epizooties (OIE) standard guidelines. The result showed that the percentage of professionals and animal owners practiced at least acceptable level of use and practice of antibiotics were only 18.3% (22/120) and 33% (10/30), respectively. The education status of animal owners was found to be significantly associated with practice of antibiotic use by owner, whereas the education status and having previous professional training on antibiotic use were found to statistically significantly associate with use of antibiotic uses by professionals. The range antibiotics available for veterinary interventions in veterinary clinics for the last 5 years were short acting oxytetracycline (34%), long acting oxytetracycline (25.8%), pinstripe (12.7%), sulfadrugs (10.2%), Procaine penicillin (8.3%). The list of antibiotics used in Hawassa city is very narrow as compared to the list of antibiotics for veterinary use by OIE standard guideline, recommends use of various ranges of antibiotics. The study revealed both animal owners and professionals not follow acceptable level of uses antibiotic, potentially leads the development of antimicrobial resistance, toxicity in animals and humans consuming animal products and the subsequent inefficacy of the antibiotics in the area. Therefore, the use and practices of antibiotics should be changed and follow the standards of OIE through capacity development of the professionals and animal owners. Further, the country should seek towards a rule and/or regulation to enforce the proper uses and practices of antibiotics in particular and antimicrobials in general.
    Addisu Abdeta and Seifu Hailu*
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of major reproductive health problems and to know associated risk factors in precipitating reproductive health problems and to assess smallholder and medium scale dairy farms in Nekemte town from November 2010-April 2011. Three hundred eighty four (n=384) dairy cows (158 local breeds and 226 crossbreds) were included in the study using questionnaire survey (n=354) and regular clinical examination and personal observation (n=30).About 49.74% (n=191) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive health problems. Repeat breeder, abortion, retained fetal membrane were found to be the major reproductive health problems whereas dystocia, stillbirth and an aestrus were assorted problems found to be the minor clinical reproductive problems with prevalence 14.1%, 12.1%, 8.6% and 5.5%, 4.7% and 2.6%, respectively. Age and hygienic condition were found to influence the occurrences (prevalence) of clinical reproductive problems being significantly (X2=14.8 & 4.38; P<0.05) higher in age groups above 5 years and poor hygienic conditions. Body condition score, breed, parity and management systems were not found to be significant (X2=0.195, 0.003, 0.05 & 0.18, P>0.05) in the occurrences of these problems. Therefore, this particular study revealed that the major clinical reproductive problems in this area included repeat breeder, abortion, retained fetal membrane, dystocia, stillbirth and uterine discharge are the major problems responsible for precipitation of reproductive health problems in dairy cows. In conclusion, the highest prevalence of reproductive disorders and the associated risk factors indicate the importance of management related constraints. In sum, in order to ameliorate the constraints more focused works on health management and hausing aspects of the local and cross breed dairy cows under extensive and semi-intensive management systems in Nekemte town is indispensible. In addition, detailed study is required in order to explain the responsible causes and design optimum control and or prevention strategies.
    Short Communication
    Fatima Zohra Fakri*, Tarik Embarki, Warda Baha, Khalid Omari Tadlaoui, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri and Mehdi El Harrak
    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and Sheeppox (SP) are highly contagious diseases of small ruminants causing huge economic losses. Vaccination is the most efficient tool to control both diseases. Morocco conducted in 2015 a large vaccination program with a combined vaccine against PPR and SP, recently developed. The study was carried out on 1079 randomly selected sera, sampled 6 and 9 months after vaccination, tested by competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) for PPR and Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) for SP. Significant level of antibodies among sheep population was detected on 84% for PPR and 77.5% for SP. No statistically significant difference found regarding antibody response of young animals (=12 months) and adult (> 12 months), breeding system (extensive vs intensive) and post-vaccination sampling time (P>0.05). However, response to vaccination was different between breed (P<0.01). The high seroconversion rate reflected a strong immunity status against both diseases, which indicates that the combined vaccine can be used for economic vaccination strategy.
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