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  • ISSN: 2573-1610
    Early Online
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Gisela Ramos, Ines Amparo Revelo, Andres Felipe Aristizabal-Pachon, and Willian Orlando Castillo*
    Among the Indigenous cultures of Southern of Colombia, the chewing of coca and mambe are a very common and ancient practice in almost all age group. The leaves of several species of the shrub Erythroxylum, popularly known as coca, are the natural source of cocaine. Traditionally, indigenous population has chewed the coca leaves to prevent fatigue during long hours of work. In the practice of chewing, the coca leaves are mixed with limestone powder and maintained between the molars and inner cheeks. This tradition has been associated with adverse effects in oral cavity and upper digestive tract. Effects and the composition of coca have been extensively studied; however, the cytogenetic effects in the oral cavity associated to the habit of chew coca leaves and mambe received less attention. In this context, we used the Micronucleus assay (MN) to compare cytogenetic damage in the cells of oral mucosa of coca and mambe chewers. We observed a significant increase in MN frequency among coca and mambe chewers compared to control group; indicating strong cytogenetic damage associated to the habit of coca and mambe chewing. Together, this study reemphasizes the efficacy of MN assay as method in health hazards monitoring associated by habit and life styles.
    Research Article
    Arrangoiz R*, Lambreton-Hinojosa F, Cordera F, Caba D, Cruz-González E, Luque-de-León E, Moreno E, and Muñoz M
    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHTP) is the most common cause of outpatient hypercalcemia and has a prevalence of about one to seven cases per 1,000 adults. Concurrent thyroid disease and PHPT has been reported in 20% to 84% of the cases, although no causal relationship has been established. Malignant tumors of the thyroid are identified in approximately 2% to 20% of these cases. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy. Certain situations undoubtedly contribute to the development of both of these diseases, such as the use of therapeutic neck radiation for various clinical indications used in the past. Outside of these special situations with a clear etiology, the wide variation in reports of concomitant parathyroid and thyroid disease fuel debate as to the necessity and extent of thyroid evaluation prior to surgical treatment of PHPT. We report on 5 patients with thyroid cancer that was detected or suspected during work-up for surgical treatment of PHPT. In this case series, we aim to emphasize the need for preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland in patients who will undergo surgical treatment for PHPT, as it is crucial to minimize reoperation rates and complications.
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