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  • ISSN: 2373-9282
    Tumor-To-Tumor Metastasis: Intracranial Meningioma Harboring Metastatic Breast Carcinoma
    Authors: Lucas F Abrahao-Machado, Eduarda F Abrahao-Machado, Elaine C F Abrahao-Machado, Fernanda Possas Guimaraes, Marcelo Alvarenga, Ana Maria Adami, Cesar Augusto Alvarenga, JoaoFlavio de Mattos Araujo and Gustavo Zucca-Matthes
    Abstract: Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is an uncommon event and meningioma has been found as the most common intracranial tumor hosting metastasis, with the majority arising from breast cancer.
    Significance of a Biomarkers Immunohistochemistry Panel for Survival Prognostic in Patients with Sporadic Colorectal Cancer
    Authors: Luderer LA, Lustosa SAS, Silva SEM, Denadai MVA, Afonso Jr RJ, Viana LS and Matos D
    Abstract: Objective: to evaluate the prognostic power of survival of a biomarkers panel formed by p53, VEGF, Bcl-2, Ki-67, and EGFR in subjects with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma subjected to radical surgical treatment.
    Latest Articles
    Research Article
    Shimaa A.A. Ismail*
    Background: Environmental toxicants have been found to induce multiple adverse effects on human and animal’s body organs including, kidney and immune system. Presently, this experiment was designed to assess the nephro-protective and immune-stimulant effects of spirulina platensis microalgae against lead acetate induced attenuated body immune response and oxidative renal damages.
    Methods: 40 male albino rats were randomly divided into equal 4 groups. In comparison with control (C) group. Animals were received spirulina platenesis (300 mg/kg b. wt, orally) and/or lead acetate (50 mg/kg b.wt, IP) for 4 weeks. Samples were collected at the end of the experimental period. Protective effects of SP were checked by measuring selective hematological, immunological and biochemical tests, besides histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations.
    Results: Co-exposed SP/LD rats showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression in the levels of LD induced –elevated urea, creatinine, MDA, MCV, retics%, and caspaes-3 over-expression, in contrast, they evoked significant elevation in LD-induced depleting GSH, SOD, IgG, IgM, hypo-proteinemia, hypo-albuminemia, hypo-gamma-globulinemia, RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCHC, WBCs, Lymphocytes, and CD8 down-expression. Additionally, SP restored the renal histological structure near the normal.
    Conclusion: SP protects from toxic immunological, hematological, and nephrotoxic impacts of LD through its powerful free radical-scavenging, antioxidant, and immunostimulant activities.
    Anna Modji Basse*, Ngor Side Diagne, Soumaila Boubacar, Adjaratou Dieynabou Sow, Daniel Massi Gams, Mamadou Coumé, Ndiaga Matar Gaye, Maouly Fall, Ousmane Cissé, Mbagnick Bakhoum, Alassane Mamadou Diop, Marième Soda Diop, Moustapha Ndiaye, Kamadore Touré, and Amadou Gallo Diop
    Strokes is a public health problem due to their direct annual costs relating to hospital care, related fees and their indirect annual costs linked to the consequences of remaining disability. Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, epidemiological studies in different parts of the world are needed. The overall objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of stroke of patients received at the neurology unit of the Retirement Care Center of Dakar in IPRES. It was a retrospective study conducted from January 2010 to April 2016, using patient’s medical files. Among 1400 consulted patients, 275 (19.6%) were enrolled in our study. The mean age was 71.8 ± 8.7 years old (extremes: 43-101) with a male predominance (66.2%). Concerning the brain CT-scan, 243 patients (88.4%) presented cerebral infarct. The main risk factors were high blood pressure HBP (80%), diabetes (17.1%) and history of stroke (14.2%). Frequent complications encountered were epilepsy (11.5%) and vascular dementia (8.7%), motor disability (6.5%) and stroke recurrence (6%). Approximately 22 deaths have been noted giving a lethality rate of 12.02%. Most patients (54,44%) experienced clinical improvement. Stroke represents a major public health problem. It is therefore necessary to fight against stroke by early diagnosis and management of risk factors including HBP, especially among the elderly.
    Rahmeto Abebe* Berhanu Mekbib, and Daniel Ketema
    The study was conducted in cart-horses apparently recovered from Epizootic lymphangitis to evaluate the cytopathological findings in swollen superficial lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, to identify the possible causative agents of such swellings and to assess the degree of resolution of the pathogen (Histoplasma farciminosum). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples were collected from 126 cart horses with visible swollen superficial lymph nodes and/or lymphatic vessels (Group I) and 46 apparently recovered carthorses with linear scars on their sternum, face and limbs (Group II). Smears were prepared, stained with modified Giemsa and thoroughly examined for cellular responses and infectious agents. Cytologic diagnosis revealed that 89.7% and 10.3% of the samples from the first group were positive for Histoplasma farciminosum and bacteria of unidentified species, respectively. On the other hand, examination of samples taken from group II cart-horses showed lymphadenitis without apparent causative agent in 15.2%, lymphadenitis along with Histoplasma farciminosum in 19.56% and absolutely normal lymph nodes in 65.2% of the horses. Further evaluation of lymphadenitis cases without apparent causative agent (from group II) indicated that 42.86%, 42.86% and 14.3% of the cases were eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphadenitis of immune stimulation in nature on the basis of dominant cellular reactions. All of the cases of lymphadenitis associated with Histoplasma farciminosum were pyogranulomatous in nature. In general, cytology was found valuable tool in establishing a diagnosis, identifying the process and forming a prognosis. Horses apparently recovered from lymphangitis can harbor the agent in their superficial lymph nodes and act as source of infection for naive horses. Humane destruction of severe cases and carrier horses should be practiced widely in the country to effectively control epizootic lymphangitis. Further study is required to isolate and characterize the bacterial causes of lymphangitis.
    Short Communication
    G.O. Ajayi*
    Background: Maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the developing fetuses. But there is a little consensus about screening during pregnancy and the test used to establish a Toxoplasmosis diagnosis are complex.
    Objective: The objective is to determine the seropositivity rate of Toxoplasma gondii IgG/ IgM in maternal and fetal compartment and compare the fetal Toxoplasma gondii IgM result with polymerase-chain-reaction test (PCR) result.
    Setting: The outpatient of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy Centre laboratory of a University Tertiary Care Centre in Lagos.
    Design: A retrospective study.
    Method and Material: Prenatal Diagnosis Test including ultrasonography, maternal blood screening for Toxoplasma gondii IgG/IgM, amniocentesis and fetal blood sampling were performed in n =398 patients referred to rule out present or past Toxoplasma gondii infection. Amniocentesis was performed in 70 (78.65%) cases including a set of twin and cordocentesis in 19(21.35%) cases. The results obtained from a Toxoplasma gondii IgM positivity in Amniotic fluid and Cord blood were compared with the result of the PCR test on the 17 Toxoplasma gondii IgM positive in amniotic fluid and 5 Toxoplasma gondii IgM positive in cord blood. Congenital infection was found in 22 (24.72%) cases out of the 89 patients with IgG/IgM Toxoplasma gondiisero positivity. The PCR was positive in 20 (90.90%) out of 22 cases.
    Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis using ultrasound, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, serology testing and PCR is relatively safe, reliable and accurate. It must be done by experienced personnel.
    Case Report
    Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Hossein Hemmati, Ali Ashraf, Siamak Rimaz, and Mahdi Pursafar*
    Thoracic trauma can cause significant mortality and morbidity. Traumatic thoracic injuries are accompanied by abdominal, head and extremity injuries. Thoracic trauma is divided into two groups; penetrating and blunt. Penetrating traumas are primarily caused by gunshots and sharp objects. The lungs are the most commonly injured organ in penetrating thoracic trauma. Impalement of chest is an uncommon injury and one of the most severe types of penetrating thoracic injuries. Only a few cases have been reported in which the patient recuperated without sequelae. Impalement chest trauma are usually fatal, therefore few cases have been reported in the literature review. These injuries usually occur unilaterally. Our case report is about rebar impalement into unilateral hemithorax after falling down without any mortal injury and only a minor laceration of pericardium, lung, and the great vessels of subclavian. The fact is that such injury (as our case) without any intrathoracic catastrophic event is rare.
    Mutalip Cicek*, Fatih Cakir, Alican Bilden, Nida Ozcan, Ozcan Deveci, and Kadri Gül
    Cyclospora cayetanensisis a coccidian protozoan causing gastroenteritis and has become a major agent of diarrhea in recent years. Six patients were admitted with complaint diarrhea and abdominal pain to the infectious diseases outpatient clinic of Dicle University’s Research and Training Hospital. Stool specimens were examined with the wet mount and modified acid-fast staining methods. These patients were diagnosed as having cyclosporiasis. of the Cyclospora cayetanensis positive patients, three subjects were females and the other three were males. Different parasite species other than Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in these patients. Laboratory examinations, whole blood counts, urine analyses, and hepatic and renal function were normal in patients. The patients had diarrhea, fatigue, fever, anorexia, and abdominal pain complaints. This research reports the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of six cyclosporiasis cases in Diyarbakir province of southeastern Turkey. Additionally, a review of the literature from Turkey on this protozoan is included.
    Takuji Tanaka*
    Langerhans cells (LCs) derived from the CD34+ hematopoietic precursor cells of the bone marrow are mobile, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells. The characteristic cytoplasmic marker, the Birbeck granules, is found ultrastructually in 10-week-old embryo.
    Case Report
    Polat FR*, Duran Y, Sakalli O, and Balkan MB
    Pilonidal sinus is a common entity, most often occurring in the natal cleft. Pilonidal sinuses (PS) usually occurring in the sacrococcygeal region. However, PS occasionally occurs in other parts of the body, referred to as extrasacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus (ESPS). We report a case of pilonidal sinus at intermammarial region. It is investigated appropriate management and post-surgery advice on prevention.
    Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Omid Mosafayi, Babak Karimi, Hossein Torabi, Mostafa Ziabari, and Mahdi Pursafar*
    Background: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus and caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm and it primarily affects the liver and lung but involvement of other organs is also possible secondary to peritoneal seeding or hematogeneous dissemination. About extra hepatic and pulmonary hydatid cyst (EHPHC) there are not basic studies. we want to discuss this entity and review the literatures.
    Materials and methods: A systematic retrospective review was performed for all extra hepatic and pulmonary hydatidcyst (EHPHC) patients treated in our province between 1990and 2016. Inclusion criteria in this study, was all patients with (EHPHC) organ involvement without simultaneously involvement liver and lung by hydatid cyst. Final diagnosis confirmed with pathologist. The patient's records were studied for gender, age, site of involvement, diagnosis and results of treatment. All data was analyzed by using SPSS version 21.
    Results: In this study record of 33 patients who were evaluated within this period, were reviewed. 21 patients were male and 12 patients were female. Age of patients was 25 to 56 years old. Hydatid cyst of spleen was the most common all of (EHPHC). Others were Kidney, pancreas, soft tissue and mediastinum. The most common tools for diagnosis was U/S and CT-scan. All patients with hydatid cyst of spleen underwent splenectomy. Others (EHPHC) underwent radical resection. Albendazole used in all patients just post operation. Outcomes of surgery were good and no recurrences were occurred.
    Conclusion: Although liver and lung are the most commonly involved organs, in 10% of cases it occurs in other locations. Hydatid cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of any cystic mass of all organs in body, especially in endemic regions. Total remove of the cyst component without any spillage is the best treatment option.
    Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh*, Mohammad RasoulHerfatkar, FarzadGhotbi, Goharshrieha, Bahareh Mohtasham, and Omid Mosafaiee
    Hydatid disease can involve various organs of the body and may develop in any organ member But most often in the liver (77%-50%) and lungs (35%-18%), and sometimes in other organs. Liver and hepatic hydatid cysts occur in 25% of cases in 4%. The clinical signs and symptoms of hydatid cyst depend on the locations that are involved (deep or superficial,right or left lobe), size, adjacent organs, and complications such as infection or cyst rupture. Rupture of the cyst may occur after trauma or spontaneously due to suddenly increased intracystic pressure. When a hydatid cyst is broken down in the peritoneum, catastrophic complications such as abdominal pain, chewing gum, anaphylaxis, and sudden death may occur. We have a 40-year-old woman with anaphylactic shock, Such as severe abdominal pain, tachycardia, hypotension and massive erythema, and rapidly intubating and then severely care unit forresuscitation. With the primary suspicion of peritonitis, open laparotomy was performed. During the surgery, hydatid cyst elements were observed within different parts of the abdomen. One ruptured cyst was seen in the posterior of theright lobe of liver which invades to the diaphragm. The cyst cavity was irrigated with saline, pericystectomy and Capi tonnage. The abdominal cavity was washed twice with providing –iodine10% of the solution at 10-minute intervals. One huge cyst was also detected in the upperlobe of right lung on postoperative chest radiography. one week latter patient under went thoracotomy for lung cyst. Patient discharged with good conditions. Conclusion:The rupture of a hydatid cyst into the abdominal cavity is rare and anaphylaxis shock is extremely rare. This condition missed with acute abdomen in endemic areas, especially in young patients and must be in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen.
    Research Article
    Lim Yan*, Shankar Loganathan, and Amal Rashad Nimir
    Opportunistic infections such as toxoplasmosis pose an increasingly ominous threat to public health as the prevalence of primary and secondary immunocompromise increases. Hence, a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practice related to Toxoplasma gondii infection among rural and semi-urban community was conducted in three semi-urban areas in Malaysia. Three hundred and twenty one participants were recruited through convenience sampling in this study. A self-administered, modified validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire covered participants' demographic profiles, source of water, contact with cats, personal health practices and knowledge about toxoplasmosis. Analysis of the data revealed that poor hand hygiene and poor personal health practices were observed to a significant degree amongst the younger age group, males and individuals with low education level. The general population was also found to have low knowledge and awareness about toxoplasmosis. Such knowledge gap needs to be addressed and further studies need to be conducted to evaluate population awareness and practices which place individuals at risk of infection so that more effective educational programmes and other interventions can be carried out.
    Shefaa AM El-Mandrawy*
    Background: Salmonellosis is a severe systemic disease of chicken, that threaten the poultry industry all over the world, thus the present study was planned to reach to accurate treatment of this serious disease, in addition to study the effect of Salmonellosis on hemato- biochemical, immunological and pathological changes in broiler chicken. Materials and methods: 100 broiler chickens (Cobb breed), one-days-old were obtained from Dakahlia Company for poultry production and divided as following: 25 birds were clinically healthy kept as control group (I), 25 birds infected with S. Gallinarum (II), 25 birds administrated Clostri-Mix and infected with S.Gallinarum (III) and 25 birds infected with S.Gallinarum strain and treated with Ciprociel (IV). Blood and tissue samples were collected for hemato-biochemical, immunological and histopathological examination.
    Results: The infected broiler chickens showed sever yellowish diarrhea. In addition, decrease in body weight, gain and feed consumption with significant increase in FCR. Furthermore, hemolytic anemia with leucocytosis was observed. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in serum total proteins, albumin, Ca, GSH with significant increases in serum activities of ALT and AST, P, creatinine, uric acid and MDA concentration. Immunological studies clarified significant decrease in LTR, phagocytic % and index, in addition to several histological alterations in intestine, liver and kidney of the infected birds. All these disturbances were less severe in that administer Clostridium butyricum.
    Conclusion: Clostridium butyricum can increase the bird immunity against Salmonellosis, which induced sever haemolytic anemia with hepatic, renal and intestinal disorders in broiler chickens.
    Case Report
    Mutamad Amin*, Ashok Raut, and Henry Okoron wanja
    This is community-based cross-sectional study covering the riverine settlements around the Kainji and Jebba Lakes, where the incidence and prevalence of waterborne diseases are reported in the past studies and confirmed through the community consultation. The study area falls in three States: Niger, Kwara and Kebbi. The methods of data collection employed in the study involved:- House hold survey using structured questionnaires - Focused group discussions -Collection of physiologic specimen from the household for investigation and analysis. The major water related diseases found included malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filiariasis and onchocerciasis
    Gary S. Goldman*
    Introduction: A Research Analyst insider report's findings that the Universal Varicella Vaccination Program alters the epidemiology of herpes zoster (shingles); and details ways in which the CDC, in collusion with the Los Angeles Department of Health Services (LADHS)—the Acute Communicable Disease Control unit—apparently manipulated data to conceal unwanted outcomes that supported an immunologically-mediated link between varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) epidemiology.
    Methodology: The Varicella Active Surveillance Project (VASP) was one of three CDC-funded projects in the US whose mission was to monitor the effects of the varicella vaccine on the population of 300,000 within the geographically isolated region of the Antelope Valley (consisting of principally two cities: Lancaster and Palmdale, California). Starting in 1995, prior to varicella vaccine licensure in March, under a cooperative agreement between CDC and the LADHS, the VASP collected baseline epidemiological data, which when considered with data from the other two surveillance projects (Travis County, Texas and West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), would assist the CDC in recommending policies pertaining to the vaccine.
    Results: Trends in vaccine efficacy were masked by averaging varicella vaccine efficacy over several years instead of stratifying efficacy by year. High HZ incidence rates among children that had had natural varicella were masked by reporting a single mean of a bimodal distribution that included children that were administered the varicella vaccine. While CDC researchers initially opposed and criticized the Research Analyst's methodology and calculation of childhood HZ incidence rates, eventually they used similar methodology and found similar outcomes. The CDC rates, however, represented only half the true rates in the population since two-source capture-recapture statistical methods revealed 50% reporting completeness.
    Conclusion: The CDC mainly published selective studies and manipulated findings to support universal varicella vaccination and aggressively blocked the Research Analyst's attempt to publish deleterious trends or outcomes (e.g., declining vaccine efficacy, increasing HZ incidence rates, etc.), prompting his resignation in protest against what he perceived was research fraud. His letter of resignation stated, ”When research data concerning a vaccine used in human populations is being suppressed and/or misrepresented, this is very disturbing and goes against all scientific norms and compromises professional ethics.”
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