Attapon Cheepsattayakorn* and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Ramazzini first described this disease, namely “Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis” and then was changed according to the types of exposed dust. No reliable figures on the silica-inhalation exposed individuals are officially documented. How silica particles stimulate pulmonary response and the exact path physiology of silicosis are still not known and urgently require further research. Nevertheless, many researchers hypothesized that pulmonary alveolar macrophages play a major role by secreting fibroblast-stimulating factor and re-ingesting these ingested silica particles by the pulmonary alveolar macrophage with progressive magnification. Finally, ending up of the death of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages and the development of pulmonary fibrosis appear. Various mediators, such as CTGF, FBRS, FGF2/bFGF, and TNFa play a major role in the development of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A hypothesis of silicosis-associated abnormal immunoglobulins has been postulated. In conclusion, novel studies on pathogenesis and biomarkers of silicosis are urgently needed for precise prevention and control of this silently threaten disease of the world.
Letter to Editor
AmalR Nimir*, and Anne Jamaludin
Prevention Is Better Than Cure; that's what we have always been told.
Let's imagine living in the 14th century for a minute. You wake up in a flea-ridden bed after a restless night of sleep, interrupted by the alarm clock of the century (the nearest rooster).
Nicholas J. Kavana*
Spirometra is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm of Canidae and Felidae  with worldwide distribution. This cestode is of medical importance as its larvae, the plerocercoid can infect humans causing sparganosis. Sparganosis is endemic in many countries with the majority of cases reported from Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Eastern Africa [2-6] The life-cycle of Spirometra sp. is dependent of two types of intermediate hosts.
Happyness J. Mshana*, Savael X. Ngowi, Vito Baraka, Gerald Misinzo, and Williams H. Makunde
Background: Bancroftian filariasis a parasitic vector-borne disease among the communicable neglected tropical infectious disease. The disease has been found to compromise the well-being of large populations in endemic countries within the tropics and sub-tropics. Despite of the several studies attempted to document on the mechanism involved in the development of clinical disease, until now the pathogenesis of the disease is not yet clear to date, although there, several underlined aetiological factors being implicated. This study was conducted to determine the role of TLR 2 –196 to –173 del and its association with asymptomatic bancroftian filariasis in endemic communities of Tanga region in north eastern Tanzania.
Methods: TLR 2 -196 to -173 polymorphism in the 5’ untranslated region using allele specific real time -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were tested in 79 individuals.
Results: TLR 2 -196 to – 173 polymorphisms were tested positive in 36.7 % of the samples.
Conclusion: TLR 2 -196 to -173 del polymorphisms occurrence among individuals infected with bancroftian filariasis disease highlights the potential for the susceptibility of bancroftian filariasis infection and importance of further genetic research for better understanding the mechanism of infection transmission and heterogeneity of the disease.