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  • ISSN: 2373-9282
    Tumor-To-Tumor Metastasis: Intracranial Meningioma Harboring Metastatic Breast Carcinoma
    Authors: Lucas F Abrahao-Machado, Eduarda F Abrahao-Machado, Elaine C F Abrahao-Machado, Fernanda Possas Guimaraes, Marcelo Alvarenga, Ana Maria Adami, Cesar Augusto Alvarenga, JoaoFlavio de Mattos Araujo and Gustavo Zucca-Matthes
    Abstract: Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is an uncommon event and meningioma has been found as the most common intracranial tumor hosting metastasis, with the majority arising from breast cancer.
    Significance of a Biomarkers Immunohistochemistry Panel for Survival Prognostic in Patients with Sporadic Colorectal Cancer
    Authors: Luderer LA, Lustosa SAS, Silva SEM, Denadai MVA, Afonso Jr RJ, Viana LS and Matos D
    Abstract: Objective: to evaluate the prognostic power of survival of a biomarkers panel formed by p53, VEGF, Bcl-2, Ki-67, and EGFR in subjects with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma subjected to radical surgical treatment.
    Latest Articles
    Case Report
    Mutamad Amin*, Ashok Raut, and Henry Okoron wanja
    This is community-based cross-sectional study covering the riverine settlements around the Kainji and Jebba Lakes, where the incidence and prevalence of waterborne diseases are reported in the past studies and confirmed through the community consultation. The study area falls in three States: Niger, Kwara and Kebbi. The methods of data collection employed in the study involved:- House hold survey using structured questionnaires - Focused group discussions -Collection of physiologic specimen from the household for investigation and analysis. The major water related diseases found included malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filiariasis and onchocerciasis
    Muok EM*, Diana Huis in't Veld, George O.Ogola, Diana M. Karanja, Robert Colebunders, and Pauline NM. Mwinzi
    We present two case reports of schistosomiasis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) identified during an epidemiological study of interactions between HIV and schistosomiasis in Rarieda district of Nyanza province in Kenya.
    Roberta Lima Caldeira*, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti-Passos, Tatiana Maria Teodoro, and Omar dos Santos Carvalho
    The susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil was evaluated. Specimens F1 of B. tenagophila (ES) and B. glabrata (MG) control, were individually exposed to miracidia of the LE, SJ and AL strains. The snails were examined 30 days after the exposure and weekly thereafter for a period of 80 days. The snails that died during the experiment were subjected to the low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR) technique to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA. The infection rate for B. tenagophila (ES) was 0% to all strains used, whereas the rates for B. glabrata were 81, 90 and 94.3% for the SJ, AL and LE strains, respectively. B. tenagophila snails that died during the experiments were not positive for S. mansoni, while all of the B. glabrata were positive for S. mansoni. In addition, to verify if the miracidia had penetrated in the molluscs and how long it was eliminated, B. tenagophila specimens were exposed to miracidia and ten snails were sacrificed at different times and subjected to LS-PCR. Forty-eight hours after the exposure, S. mansoni was not detected in B. tenagophila. We concluded that this B. tenagophila population is resistant to infections of S. mansoni (100 miracidia/snail).
    Review Article
    Gary S. Goldman*
    Introduction: A Research Analyst insider report's findings that the Universal Varicella Vaccination Program alters the epidemiology of herpes zoster (shingles); and details ways in which the CDC, in collusion with the Los Angeles Department of Health Services (LADHS)—the Acute Communicable Disease Control unit—apparently manipulated data to conceal unwanted outcomes that supported an immunologically-mediated link between varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) epidemiology.
    Methodology: The Varicella Active Surveillance Project (VASP) was one of three CDC-funded projects in the US whose mission was to monitor the effects of the varicella vaccine on the population of 300,000 within the geographically isolated region of the Antelope Valley (consisting of principally two cities: Lancaster and Palmdale, California). Starting in 1995, prior to varicella vaccine licensure in March, under a cooperative agreement between CDC and the LADHS, the VASP collected baseline epidemiological data, which when considered with data from the other two surveillance projects (Travis County, Texas and West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), would assist the CDC in recommending policies pertaining to the vaccine.
    Results: Trends in vaccine efficacy were masked by averaging varicella vaccine efficacy over several years instead of stratifying efficacy by year. High HZ incidence rates among children that had had natural varicella were masked by reporting a single mean of a bimodal distribution that included children that were administered the varicella vaccine. While CDC researchers initially opposed and criticized the Research Analyst's methodology and calculation of childhood HZ incidence rates, eventually they used similar methodology and found similar outcomes. The CDC rates, however, represented only half the true rates in the population since two-source capture-recapture statistical methods revealed 50% reporting completeness.
    Conclusion: The CDC mainly published selective studies and manipulated findings to support universal varicella vaccination and aggressively blocked the Research Analyst's attempt to publish deleterious trends or outcomes (e.g., declining vaccine efficacy, increasing HZ incidence rates, etc.), prompting his resignation in protest against what he perceived was research fraud. His letter of resignation stated, "When research data concerning a vaccine used in human populations is being suppressed and/or misrepresented, this is very disturbing and goes against all scientific norms and compromises professional ethics."
    Short Note
    SD Mante*
    A hydrocele is a fluid collection within the tunica vaginalis of the scrotum or along the spermatic cord. In the adult population, filariasis, a parasitic infection caused by Wuchereriabancrofti, accounts for most causes of hydroceles worldwide, affecting more than 120 million people in more than 80 countries where more than 30% of them live in Africa.
    Research Article
    Hwiada AbuBaker and Mutamed Amin
    Background: Although methods of schistosomiasis transmission are well documented, limited evidence exists on transmission patterns across gender and class. This study aims at joining force to the efforts trying to situate water-related behavior relevant to the transmission of schistosomiasis to its socio-cultural context. It does so by targeting gender variations in relation to knowledge and behavior relevant to the transmission.
    Methods: Fifty five boys and girls at basic school aged (8-15) at Habiba basic school at Kamleen Locality were chosen purposively in accordance to the written consent they provided. The study implemented ethnographic methods for collecting data.
    Results: Knowledge about the pathological causes of schistosomiasis among both boys and girls was lacking but the clinical manifestation is partially recognized (blood in urine and painful passing of urine), yet children’s explanation of these symptoms interfered with cultural elements in the context of the village and how the villagers relate to their social world in general. Considerable variation in relations to water-contact behavior associated with gender and types of activity conducted by each group were recorded.
    Conclusion: One point of departure between boys and girls at school age in relations to the schistosomiasis infection was that boys reflected knowledge about the snail ecology in water; however association of such knowledge to health or schistosomiasis transmission was missing in the case of both categories of informants.
    Short Note
    SD Mante*
    In august 2009 on the field in one West African country during a hydrocele surgery workshop we encountered a 64year old farmer who has had bilateral hydrocele for 20years.He was married with 2children. All other parameters were normal. He had no history of hypertension, diabetes and had not had any surgeries before.
    Case Report
    Mario Dervishi*, Aziz Mohamad, Carolina Fonseca, and Alicia Heidenreich
    Teratoma is a tumor usually seen in children and adolescents and is composed of a mixture of embryonal and adult tissues derived from all three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. According to the current WHO grading system classification of the tumor consists of mature/benign and immature/malignant, depending on the presence and abundance of immature component [1,2,11,12].
    The size and stage correlate to the survival. The microscopic grade of the primary tumor best determines the likelihood of extra-ovarian spread and the grade of the metastases correlate best with the subsequent course. Indeed, a thorough tumor sampling is necessary for accurate grading. Here we report a case of high-grade immature teratoma in an 18-year-old girl.
    Jupin Chacko* and Javeed Akhter
    Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome is an extremely rare connective tissue disorder with less than 100 reported cases worldwide.The syndrome is known for acroosteolysis of the hands and feet, short stature, developmental defects of bones, teeth and joints,among numerous other findings. This case report presents the first documented instance of lung involvement being the primary presenting feature in this syndrome.
    Editorial
    Silva HAMF*
    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) are a diverse group of diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries, affecting more than 1 billion people. Among the NTDs classified by WHO are listed parasites such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, dracunculiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis and geohelminthiases. The number of people affected by these diseases is higher in regions of greater poverty, and there is a direct relationship between the prevalence of these diseases and the human development index (HDI) [1].
    Short Communication
    Testuri M, Daghero H, Rey G, Acosta G, Bernachin J, and Marco M*
    Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant genital cancers, with a high mortality rate. Despite decades of research, the survival rate of ovarian cancer patients is largely unchanged, and there is a pressing need for identifying novel therapeutic targets.
    Many researchers have suggested that soluble matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have remarkably high expression in ovarian cancer tissues, and they are considered to be related to the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Moreover, some studies have discovered that the unbalance between MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are associated with the malignant phenotype of tumors. In spite of this, there is a lack of information about the expression of membrane type –MMPs (without taking into account MT1-MMP) in ovarian cancer.
    This report shows (using immunohistochemistry) an increase in the expression of MT3- and MT5-MMPs especially in the most aggressive histological types (comparing with normal and benign tumors), which could suggest a possible biological role in the development of this pathology.
    Short Note
    Parthasarathy Sonaimuthu*
    My research interest focuses on infectious diseases involving protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum that are the reason for infections classified as neglected tropical diseases. The parasitic diseases are one of the reasons for majorsignificant global economic, environmental, and public health impacts.
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