Attapon Cheepsattayakorn* and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Ramazzini first described this disease, namely “Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis” and then was changed according to the types of exposed dust. No reliable figures on the silica-inhalation exposed individuals are officially documented. How silica particles stimulate pulmonary response and the exact path physiology of silicosis are still not known and urgently require further research. Nevertheless, many researchers hypothesized that pulmonary alveolar macrophages play a major role by secreting fibroblast-stimulating factor and re-ingesting these ingested silica particles by the pulmonary alveolar macrophage with progressive magnification. Finally, ending up of the death of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages and the development of pulmonary fibrosis appear. Various mediators, such as CTGF, FBRS, FGF2/bFGF, and TNFa play a major role in the development of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A hypothesis of silicosis-associated abnormal immunoglobulins has been postulated. In conclusion, novel studies on pathogenesis and biomarkers of silicosis are urgently needed for precise prevention and control of this silently threaten disease of the world.
Letter to Editor
AmalR Nimir*, and Anne Jamaludin
Prevention Is Better Than Cure; that's what we have always been told.
Let's imagine living in the 14th century for a minute. You wake up in a flea-ridden bed after a restless night of sleep, interrupted by the alarm clock of the century (the nearest rooster).
Nicholas J. Kavana*
Spirometra is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm of Canidae and Felidae  with worldwide distribution. This cestode is of medical importance as its larvae, the plerocercoid can infect humans causing sparganosis. Sparganosis is endemic in many countries with the majority of cases reported from Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Eastern Africa [2-6] The life-cycle of Spirometra sp. is dependent of two types of intermediate hosts.
Happyness J. Mshana*, Savael X. Ngowi, Vito Baraka, Gerald Misinzo, and Williams H. Makunde
Background: Bancroftian filariasis a parasitic vector-borne disease among the communicable neglected tropical infectious disease. The disease has been found to compromise the well-being of large populations in endemic countries within the tropics and sub-tropics. Despite of the several studies attempted to document on the mechanism involved in the development of clinical disease, until now the pathogenesis of the disease is not yet clear to date, although there, several underlined aetiological factors being implicated. This study was conducted to determine the role of TLR 2 –196 to –173 del and its association with asymptomatic bancroftian filariasis in endemic communities of Tanga region in north eastern Tanzania.
Methods: TLR 2 -196 to -173 polymorphism in the 5’ untranslated region using allele specific real time -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were tested in 79 individuals.
Results: TLR 2 -196 to – 173 polymorphisms were tested positive in 36.7 % of the samples.
Conclusion: TLR 2 -196 to -173 del polymorphisms occurrence among individuals infected with bancroftian filariasis disease highlights the potential for the susceptibility of bancroftian filariasis infection and importance of further genetic research for better understanding the mechanism of infection transmission and heterogeneity of the disease.
Robb E. Moses* and Bert W. O’Malley
Dementia is an increasing health problem in an aging population with over 10 million patients with the diagnosis in the US. In the several disease variations characterized by dementia there are common clinical and histological findings, suggesting shared underlying neuronal deficiencies and clinical outcome. Observations support the notion that any of several mechanisms may cause a loss of neuron function, progressing to dementia. In this review we summarize evidence leading to the conclusion that defects in separate neuronal processes are additive, leading to the clinical manifestation of dementia as a result of cumultive defects in discrete cellular functions. Therefore we conclude that the manifstations of dementia are the result of an intersection of defects.
Dominika Szadkowska* and Wojciechbielecki
The purpose of this article is to present the issue of spontaneous pituitary tumors in rats. These are non-metastatic tumors made of pituitary glandular cells and are a common health problem in this species. Depending on age, gender and strain, prevalence may reach 100%. The process of their formation is complex - molecular genetic changes initiate the transformation of cells, and hormones and growth factors play an important role in stimulating their proliferation. A commonly used classification of pituitary tumors is that created by WHO. It is based on the determination of the pituitary glandular cell lines using markers such as hormones and transcription factors. Clinical symptoms can be divided into two groups - neurological and hormonal. Neurological symptoms result from tumor growth and pressure on surrounding structures in the brain. Hormonal symptoms occur as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorder. Diagnosis in veterinary medicine is usually based on medical history and clinical examination, but additional tests such as CT or MRI can also be used. Bromocriptine and cabergoline are used to treat pituitary tumors in rats. Research on potential markers has been ongoing for years, including p53, Ki-67, MMP-9 or PTTG, however, so far, the results of the research remain ambiguous.
Marcelo Corti*, Astrid Pavlosky, and Marina Narbaitz
Primary gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a severe complication during the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical presentation includes symptoms associated with the upper digestive tract and “B” symptoms (fever, night sweats and weight loss). Endoscopic findings can reveal polypoid, ulcero-infiltrative or ulcer lesions. Multiple biopsy smears are necessary to determine histopathological subtypes. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histopathological subtype in HIV/AIDS patients followed by Burkitt's lymphoma and plasmablastic lymphoma. Chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy is the best treatment to achieve a complete remission with prolonged survival in this kind of patients.
Here we present an HIV seropositive patient who developed a primary gastric DLBCL as second AIDS-defining neoplasm during HAART therapy and after three years of successfully controlling HIV-viral load. Patient presented with a past history of anal squamous cell carcinoma several years before and gastro esophageal reflux disease treated for a long time with omeprazole. He presented with epigastric pain, nausea and dyspepsia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed erosive gastritis and a large gastric ulcer at the minor gastric curvature. Microscopy examination and immunohistochemistry of the biopsy smears of the large ulcer biopsy confirm the diagnosis of primary gastric DLBCL. He was treated with HAART plus chemotherapy with a complete remission for a time of three years.
A 32-year-old lady presented with 4 weeks of cough and generalized weakness. 4 weeks prior, she was diagnosed with a breakthrough covid-19 infection with fever & cough as the main symptoms (2 doses of Pfizer vaccine completed 6 months earlier, which she tolerated well). She had not yet received the booster dose of the vaccine. She received outpatient supportive treatment (no monoclonal antibodies were given) and fevers subsided within 3 days of onset. However, dry cough and weakness persisted, prompting further workup.
Bhavana Gangwar, Santosh Kumar, and Mahendra P. Darokar*
Usnic acid is one of the most abundant secondary metabolites produced by lichen genus such as Usnea sp. Usnic acid antibacterial mechanism of action study has shown to target multiple cell components and also showed synergy with different antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Drug-resistant bacteria continue to grow and defeat the drugs in use for both humans and animals. Therefore, use of alternative drugs from natural sources such as usnic acid can fight infections and may improve therapeutic efficacy while lowering side effects of antibiotics. Considering the emergence of resistant strains, this review is intended to summarize potential targets of usnic acid, with a focus on developing novel therapeutic agents against MRSA.
Agustin Aviles* and Sergio Cleto
The treatment of cancer during pregnancy, has been changed in the last years, actually is acceptable the use the standard chemotherapy regimens, even in first trimester, and late toxicities has not been reported, however, the role of pregnancy in the outcome of hematological malignancies (HM) has not been reported. Thus we review our experience in a large number of cases and longer follow-up in mother HM, to assess if pregnancy influence the outcome on HM. Retrospectively we reviewed the cases of patients with pathological diagnosis of HM and pregnant that received chemotherapy during pregnancy and they were matched with non-pregnant patients, with same age, socio-economical and scholar conditions and HM who received the same chemotherapy, Outcome were measured with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). From 1975 to 2016, we recruit 202 pregnant patients with pathological diagnosis of HM, in whose no obstetrical complications were observed; delivery and post-partum was normal, late toxicities in mothers were minimal, when a new pregnancy was desired it was normal; chemotherapy administered during pregnancy was well tolerated, PFS and OS were statistically better in pregnant patients when compared with no pregnant women. Children did not have any congenital malformations, preterm and low-weight was minimal, and did no influence development. All clinical, laboratory, neurocognitive evaluations and echocardiogram were normal, compared with a control group of the same age, economic, social and scholar degree. No acute leukemia or second neoplasm has been observed in mothers or newborns.
Conclusion: We show that pregnant mothers with HM, had a statistically differences in PFS and OS, compared with a matched group of non-pregnant patients. We did not have a scientific explication about it is a probably protective role of pregnancy in this setting of patients.
Vladimir Tsuprun*, Mark R. Schleiss, and Sebahattin Cureoglu
Hypothesis: Human temporal bones of newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection can be characterized by diverse cochlear and vestibular histopathologies associated with the variability in sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and vestibular dysfunction in these newborns.
Background: Only a small number of studies on the cochlear and vestibular pathologies in human temporal bones with cCMV infection have been previously reported.
Methods: Cochleovestibular histopathologies were evaluated in 4 temporal bones from 3 infants with cCMV infection by light microscopy.
Results: In one available temporal bone of the infant in Case 1, no cytomegalic cells were found. Large areas of cellular and non-cellular structures were observed in the scala tympani of the perilymphatic space; however, there was no obvious loss of cochlear or vestibular hair cells. In Case 2, cytomegalic cells, a loss of vestibular hair cells, and a loss of nerve fibers were observed only in the area of dark cells in the vestibular labyrinth of the left temporal bone. No cytomegalic cells were found in the right temporal bone of the same infant; however, there was a loss of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti and hypervascularity in the stria vascularis. The one available temporal bone of the infant in Case 3 showed cytomegalic cells and a loss of hair cells in both cochlear and vestibular parts of the inner ear.
Conclusions: Human temporal bones of newborns with cCMV demonstrate diverse cochleovestibular histopathologies. This diversity is consistent with the variable SNHL and vestibular dysfunction reported in infected newborns.