Efficacy of sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Cu and ZnO nanoparticles on hatchability and control of Saprolegnia spp. on Clarias gariepinus eggs - Abstract
Fungal infections (mainly Saprolegnia sp.) are prevalent in hatcheries and may affect hatching of fish eggs. Several chemical agents available to control these infections have remained low in efficacy. Several laboratory studies indicate that nanoparticles are used to control of several strains of fungi. This study evaluated efficacy of sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnONP) and copper nanoparticle (CuNP) against Saprolegnia spp. in Clarias gariepinus eggs. Although all the test agents were effective in inhibiting Saprolegnia spp. growth by at least 50% at concentration ranges ? 1000 ppm, significantly (P < 0.05) higher Saprolegnia sp. spore reduction was achieved using CuNP and ZnONP compared to NaCl and H2O2 at test concentration between 500 and 1000 ppm. Also significantly (P < 0.05) higher hatchability was achieved using CuNP and ZnONP compared with NaCl and H2O2 at concentration ranges of 500 and 1000 ppm. This study demonstrates that antifungal properties of ZnONP and CuNP render them good alternative or addition to the commonly used antifungal agents such as common salt and hydrogen peroxide. Based upon further safety evaluation, these nanoparticles should be considered in control of fungal infections of fish eggs.