Poor re-Methylation of Homocysteine and TransMethylation of Methionine: Cause and Effect of HyperHomocysteinemia: Which Role for Folic Acid and Vitamins B-6-12 Supplementation? - Abstract
Background: Increased homocysteine (Hcy) levels is a consequence of its reduced re-methylation to Methionine (Met) and a cause of insufficient substrates’ rans-methylation of that, responsible of several and important functions of the human body. Aims: In this report, we defined the causes and the mechanisms inducing a reduction of chemical reactions of re-methylation of Hcy to Met and transmethylation of Met to substrates in the presence of increased Hcy serum concentration (HHcy). Methods and results: The consequences of HHcy in reducing re-methylation of Hcy and these dependent from insufficient substrates’ methylation represent the main causes of several diseases HHcy-related. Conclusions: The detrimental effects consequent to increased Hcy concentration are obtained both for toxic effects of HHcy (re-methylation) and as consequence of reduced trans-methylation of substrates. Daily supplementation with folic acid and B6-12 vitamins, even through lowers elevated Hcy serum concentration, seems to not prevent secondary cardiovascular acute events, but it is important for primary and secondary prevention of neurologic and psychiatric detrimental events HHcy-related.