Assessing the Potential Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Subjective Cognitive Decline - Abstract
Objective: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are childhood stressors that may have long-lasting effects and potentially increase risk of cognitive decline among adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential relationship between ACEs and adult cognitive decline. Design: Cross-sectional Setting: This study utilized data from the 2019 and 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Participants: Subjects were respondents who answered questions on ACEs and Cognitive Decline. Measures: Logistic regression models were used to assess the potential relationship between ACEs (individually, by category, and by total score) and self-reported cognitive decline, with adjustment for confounders. Results: Most individual ACEs were significantly associated with increased odds of subjective cognitive decline, with strongest findings for individuals having lived with someone who was depressed, mentally ill, or suicidal (OR=1.98, 95%CI: 1.80, 2.18). Those reporting one category of ACEs had 88% greater odds of cognitive decline (OR=1.88, 95%: 1.72, 2.07), while those who experienced both categories had 299% increased odds of cognitive decline (OR=3.99, 95% CI: 3.34, 4.78). Finally, a total ACE score of 4+ was associated with a 4.03 odds of cognitive decline (95% CI: 3.60, 4.51). Conclusions: ACEs were significantly and positively associated with subjective cognitive decline, with increasing number of ACEs linearly related to odds. There is a potential synergistic effect between household challenges and childhood abuse categories. ACEs have varying levels of impact and further research should explore these differences for trauma-informed care.