Spontaneous Hamman-Macklin Pneumomediastinum in pediatric age. Two Unusual Forms - Abstract
Pneumomediastinum (PNM) is a pathological condition characterized by the penetration of air into the mediastinal space. The most frequent cause of pneumomediastinum is trauma that can cause burst rupture of the esophagus, trachea or bronchi (closed trauma) or passage of air from outside or from the respiratory spaces (penetrating trauma). Rarer, non-traumatic causes may be mediastinal abscesses caused by airborne germs or pathological or traumatic perforation of a hollow abdominal viscus with consequent ascent of air through the diaphragmatic orifices.