Corneal Transplantation: Main Indications and Evaluation of Epidemiological Profile in a University Hospital - Abstract
Among transplants, the corneal is the most numerically expressive. This is due to the immunological privilege of the cornea which presents reduced rejection rates. In addition, capture, conservation and surgical techniques also contribute to this success. Keratoconus, leukoma, corneal dystrophy and post-facectomy decompensation are the main causes of optical transplants, having the latter a relationship with the number of preoperative cells and the skill of the surgeon. In hospitals where there are surgeons in training, there is an increase in corneal decompensation after facectomy. In terms of tectonic transplants in which the purpose is the preservation of the ocular structure, the main etiology is perforation due to trauma. From the observational and retrospective analysis of about 60 medical records of patients submitted to keratoplasty in the years 2015 to 2020, it is possible to understand the patients’ profile and main pathologies that evolve to transplantation in order to have an early diagnosis and to optimize their treatment. According to Sobrinho et al., from 2001 to 2009 it was noticed that patients in the state of Pará waited an average of 1 to 3 years in line for corneal transplantation. 9 In another study, Almeida et al. noticed in a 15-year review of corneal transplants that patients waited from 1 to 6 months for the performance of a keratoplasty in Brazil.10 Thus, because of its heterogeneous extension and distribution of specialized centers, Brazil has different realities in each region.