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  • ISSN: 2578-3807
    Early Online
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Cecyle K. Carson* and Jack Ryalls
    Rapid advancements in technology have made the acoustic assessment of voice more convenient and less costly; thus, there are few reasons for speech language pathologists (SLPs) not to use acoustic measures to supplement perceptual ratings. Smartphones have been found to be comparable to external microphones in recording quality, and free software programs are available to download into computers to obtain acoustic analyses results. Suggestions on a protocol for capturing and analyzing voice signals using smartphones and computer freeware or smartphone applications will be provided.
    Brent A. Gregg* and Ehud Yairi
    Stuttering onset takes place during a critical period of rapid syntactic, lexical, and phonological development, when children are acquiring the ability to produce increasingly complex utterances. Because of shared influences among various domains in the development of speech and language during this period, we hypothesized that either interferences with normal development, or rapid progress in one aspect, can have multiple effects. A previous study [1] presented data that focused on the relationship between phonological performance and stuttering at a time close to onset. This report examines the relation between phonological progress and changes in stuttering over the course of one year post onset of stuttering in preschool children who exhibit different levels of phonological skills. Twenty-nine preschool children near stuttering onset, ranging in age from 29 to 49 months (M= 39.17 months), were divided based on the initial level of phonological ability: minimal phonological deviations and moderate phonological deviations. Phonological deviancy scores (PCC) and stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) measures were obtained for 3 visits over the one-year period, and participants’ profiles for these metrics were generated, allowing a determination of the amount of increase or decrease in each metric. Longitudinal development in the two domains was examined at three set levels of change criteria. The greatest significance of this project is that it studied the relationship between stuttering and phonological skill from a temporal perspective. The results indicated that although the majority of children demonstrated improvements in both domains simultaneously, a substantial minority exhibited several other patterns.
    Case Report
    Sonia DeMartino, Jean-Louis Deveze, Clarisse Chatel, Francois Poinso, and Veronique Rey
    In Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), children’s language profiles are heterogeneous, ranging from a total absence of vocal gestures to a preserved structural language with abnormal intonation, rhythm, or speech rate. Studies on vocal production in ASD have revealed an important intervariability in these individuals but no acoustic feature can be, currently, considered as a marker of ASD. In this context, we hypothesize that the voice in some ASD individuals could be educated. We have developed a vocal training protocol, based on the "Belcanto model technique". This protocol proposes to an ASD child to reproduce exactly as precisely as possible some vocal gestures from a living trained model (the experimenter) on a several week period.
    The practice of gestures not only trains breath, sound, and intonation (BSI), and also breathes sound and pronunciation production (BSP). Such a practice mobilizes both the imitation and the joint attention. The preliminary results of the training of an 8-year-old child with ASD reveal first a good adaptation of the child to the task (mobilization of joint attention and imitation). Then, the child improved the duration vocalic production, reproduced the melodic envelope from the model and diversified these intonation patterns.
    Juan C. Llerena, Ana Carolina Esposito, Cassio Serao, and Jose Carlos Cabral de Almeida
    We report on the second case of a classical autistic patient carrying a PTCH1Gorlin syndrome mutation (c.3281_3282dupTG; p.Glu1095Trpfs*12) identified through a neurodevelopmental panel by next generation sequence. Clinical review of the patient revealed typical Gorlin nevoid basocellular syndrome with macrocephaly, palmar/plantar pits, and calcification of the cerebral falx. There is evidence for an underlying neurodevelopmental disorder in autistic patients; and, links between hedgehog morphogen through PTCH1 receptor has recently been investigated revealing changes in brain morphology in children with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This report further links Gorlin syndrome phenotype and PTCH1 mutations to the autism spectrum disorder scenario. Recommendations regarding primary prevention and surveillance are discussed.

    Review Article
    Serniclaes W*
    Dyslexia has three discernable sources: a visual deficit in the perception of letters, a phonological deficit in the perception of speech, and an audio-visual deficit that affects the association between letters with speech sounds. The phonological deficit in dyslexia might result from a specific mode of speech perception characterized by the use of allophonic units instead of phonemes. Here I summarize the available evidence in support of the “allophonic theory” of dyslexia. Different studies showed that the dyslexia deficit in the categorical perception of phonemic features (e.g., the place-of-articulation contrast between /b/ and /d/) is due to the enhanced sensitivity to allophonic features (e.g., the difference between two variants of /d/). A recent investigation showed that allophonic perception also gives rise to an enhanced sensitivity to allophonic segments, such as those that take place inside a consonant cluster. The implications of allophonic perception for the acquisition of the written language are discussed.

    Research Article
    Ting Tang, Jiang Zhu, Min Guo, Xi Lai, Qiu Li, Ting Yang, Jie Chen, and TingYu Li*
    This study investigated the intellectual development characteristics and core symptom of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children, and explored their relationship between the clinical manifestations with intellectual development level. 280 children (average age=5.09(4-5.67) years) with ASD were enrolled. The Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were respectively used to assess children’s intellectual development and core symptom. We found more female than male with profound intellectual developmental delay in ASD children (P<0.05); and we found that ASD children at 24 to 36 months of age were more likely to be in borderline intellectual ability than being at other months of age (P<0.05). The GDS severity was milder in younger ASD children compared to older ones (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between ASD symptom severity and GDS total severity (Kendall’s tau-b=2.227, P=0.000). These cores of all GDS functional areas of severe ASD children was significantly lower than that of mild-moderate ASD children, except for gross motor functional areas (P<0.001). And the score of every functional domain were generally at the level of moderate to severe defects. And compared with other functional areas, language functional domain scored lowest and was at severe developmental delays. The language function areas Development Age (DA) of children with mild to moderate ASD was mainly 12 to 24 months, while the language development level of children with severe ASD was lower, mainly at < = 18 months of age level, in which 40.1% is lower than 12 months. We should not only focus on ASD children core symptoms, but also pay attention to their clinical phenotype severity with intellectual development level, considering the impact between the two factors, especially their language ability in different symptom severity, and formulate an intervention plan that fits theirs.
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