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  • ISSN: 2333-7141
    Current Issue
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Haseen Ahmed, Vidya Singh, Abha Pandey, Vinod K. Kannaujiya, Rajneesh, Jainendra Pathak, and Rajeshwar P. Sinha*
    In this study, we have investigated the combined effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on chlorophyll a (Chl a), total carotene, protein contents and antioxidative enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)in the cyanobacterium Scytonema geitleri strain HKAR-12. 2,4-D alone stimulated the growth and differentiation of Scytonema geitleri strain HKAR-12in nitrogen free medium at a low concentration 100 μg/mL.While its higher concentration inhibited growth and 500 μg/mL concentration of 2,4-D proved to be lethal. Chl a and protein content were found to be adversely affected by combined exposure of UVR, PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and 2,4-D after varying duration of treatments. However, a progressive increase in total carotene content was observed upto 48 h of exposure followed by a subsequent decrease. However, synthesis of antioxidative enzymes to counteract the damaging effect of such stressful conditions is one of the several mechanisms adapted by cyanobacteria as their defense strategies. Antioxidative enzymes exhibited differential responses against combined stress of UVR, PAR and 2,4-D. SOD, CAT and APX showed 2-3 fold increase upto 48 h duration of exposure in PAR; PAR + 2,4-D; PAB (PAR + UV-A+ UV-B) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B+ 2,4-D followed by a gradual decrease in the concentration of these studied enzymes These results suggest that the combination of UVR and exogenous herbicides such as 2,4-D have detrimental effects on cyanobacterial metabolism.
    Deepak K. Singh, Richa, Deepak Kumar, Ananya Chatterjee, Rajneesh, Jainendra Pathak, and Rajeshwar P. Sinha*
    Combined effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg/L) of pyrogallic acid (PA) were studied on the key physiological and biochemical processes in the cyanobacterium Fischerella sp. strain HKAR-5. Responses of the cyanobacterium in terms of oxidative stress, pigmentation, total protein contents and photosynthetic activity of PSII (Fv/Fm) were assessed. Antioxidative enzymes showed dose-dependent increase in activities with increasing concentrations of PA along with UV-B and PAR till 48 h of exposure followed by a decrease on further exposure. Similar trend was observed for total carotene and proteincontents. Increasing duration of UV-B exposure along with variable concentrations of PA under PAR, resulted in the increase in total carotene and proteincontentstill 36h of exposure, followed by gradual decrease with increasing time duration. Concentration of Chl a declined up to 9 fold after 72 h of exposure and maximum decrease in photosynthetic activity of PSII was observed after 60 h of treatment of UV-B, PA (50 mg/L) and PAR. Present findings suggest that manifold enhancement in antioxidative enzymes with depressed photosynthetic rate are the active defence mechanisms adopted by the cyanobacterium Fischerella sp. strain HKAR-5 for its survival against combined stress of UV-B, PAR and variable doses of PA.
    Mini Review
    Guillaume Hubert*, and Sebastien Aubry
    This paper analyses atmospheric ionizing radiations induced by Galactic and Solar Cosmic Rays (GCR and SCR, respectively) thanks to continuous measurements of neutron spectrum operated in high-altitude stations. Analyses are reinforced using GCR and SCR models, and extensive air shower descriptions based on nuclear transport simulations. First analyses were focused on neutron fluxes as function of altitude. Secondly, atmospheric ionizing radiation impacts on biological doses during quiet period and extreme solar events are presented. On the basis of the relevant comparisons conducted for ambient dose equivalent during quiet solar activity, but also for the comic ray variations calculated and recorded on neutron monitor (NM) during Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) event. GLE 5 model was applied to London ↔ New-york flight dose calculations. All of these results show that dose values vary drastically, on the one hand with the route path (latitude, longitude altitude), on the other hand with the phasing of the solar event. Specific case of Antarctica is discussed because it combines both the high altitude and the very low magnetic field. Analyses show that ionizing radiation in Antarctica environment can be a problematic from the point of view of the human dose, which exerts classical recommendations established for public. This highlights the importance of monitoring atmospheric ionizing radiation, more particularly extreme solar events, then to develop semi-empirical and particle transport method for reliable calculation of dose levels.
    Labbo R*, Fatouma AD, Amadou S, Ibrahim A, Izamne M, Saadou K and Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer O
    Malaria is a public health priority in Niger. We carried out an entomological study in 10 neighborhoods of the city of Niamey. We collected mosquitoes every three days, from each site, for 15 days at the end of the dry season and 15 days during the mid-rainy season in 2011, 2013, and 2014. A single collection of larvae was carried out at a drainage ditch and a pond during the rainy season of 2016. We sought pre-imaginal stages at 16 breeding sites, 38% of which were open-air ditches for the drainage of domestic waste water and rainwater. Anopheline larvae were raised until adult emergence. In addition to harvesting larvae, adult mosquitoes were captured using light traps and knock-down insecticide sprays. We harvested a total of 10,551 Culicidae larvae, composed of Anopheles sp., Culex sp. and Mansonia sp. Twelve percent (12%) of the larvae collected were Anopheles sp. Anopheline larvae were found at four of the six surveyed open ditches, accounting for 12.7% of collected larvae. The search for adults yielded 20,274 Culicidae females (35.2% Anopheles sp.). This survey reveals that the open ditches of Niamey, despite being severely polluted are productive breeding grounds for Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.).
    Short Communication
    Regina Leong Zhi Ling, Tennant Andrew, Lim Lai Huat, and Teo Swee Sen*
    This short communication explores the causes and consequences of water quality on the ecological sustainability of the river and living organisms in the Kuala Sepetang estuary. Key causes identified include unrestrained development of aquaculture/mariculture, direct dumping of raw sewerage into the river, and poor solid waste disposal. However, direct links between the identified causes and declining water quality and the subsequent hypothesized impacts on fish and shellfish catches is not yet clearly established. An additional issue that was identified, and one with a potentially great impact, is the low awareness of the local villagers about water quality, rubbish disposal, and conservation. Given this situation, an educational approach to increase awareness of good sanitation and conservation practices was proposed. This is coupled with a concurrent water quality-testing programme to determine sources of impact and monitor future improvements. In addition, the use of aquaponics to enhance farming potential and reduce environmental impacts is suggested. This multifaceted and cohesive approach should result in an improvement of water quality and greater conservation of resources and environment. Overall, our research indicates the need to place an emphasis on the importance of marine biodiversity conservation and community education.
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