JSM Environmental Science and Ecology

Available Treatment Methods for the Development of a Sustainable Solution for the Pollution Caused in Air, Soil and Water by the Olive Mill Wastewaters

Case Report | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Greece
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Christakis A. Paraskeva, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Karatheodori 1, GR 26504, Rion-Patras (Greece) and Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences-Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani Achaias, GR 26504, Patras, Greece

The current study summarizes the available methods and techniques for the effective management of Olive Mill Wastewaters (OMW) that is the main by-product from the process of olive oil production. OMW is characterized by the very high organic and phenolic content that inhibits its biodegradation rendering it responsible for many severe environmental phenomena. Despite the fact that to a large extent OMW is considered as a waste, this work is related with the concept that the olive mill by-products are resources and not waste, aiming to the development of innovative available techniques. Specifically, OMW contains high added value constituents which can be isolated by different treatment methods and then exploited into different scientific fields such as the food industry, pharmaceuticals, etc. As a matter of fact, the paper is associated with the description of all the available treatment methods of OMW in order to combat the extent of OMW pollution, experienced mainly in the Mediterranean countries. As an ultimate purpose, the development of an integrated treatment process of OMW is proposed aiming to the fully exploitation of the byproduct.


•    Olive mill wastewater
•    Pollution
•    Treatment methods
•    High added value constituents


OMW: Olive Mill Wastewater; CWA: Constructed Wetlands Applications; COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand; BTF: Biological Trickling Filters; TSS: Total Suspended Solids; AOP: Advance Oxidation Processes; MF: Micro-Filtration; UF: Ultra-Filtration; NF: Nano-Filtration; RO: Reverse-Osmosis.


 Kontos SS, Iakovides IC, Pantziaros AG, Paraskeva CA (2015) Available Treatment Methods for the Development of a Sustainable Solution for the Pollution Caused in Air, Soil and Water by the Olive Mill Wastewaters. JSM Environ Sci Ecol 3(1): 1016.


Olive oil production is associated with the co-production of a large amount of residual wastewater, practically equal to the weight of milled olives, due to the addition of high quantities of water during the processing of oil production. Nevertheless, as olive oil industry has a significant contribution to the financial development of the Mediterranean countries (95% of the world olive oil production [1]), the co-produced OMW has to be efficiently treated as its uncontrolled disposal into aquatic receptors is responsible for water contamination, eutrophication and aesthetic deterioration of the ecosystems [2]. As a matter of fact, it is of profound importance for all the Mediterranean countries to develop cost effective treatment methods for the OMW management.

Advantages and Drawbacks of Available Techniques

Many available techniques have been reported concerning the treatment of OMW taking into account the environmental impact of the direct disposal of the untreated by-product. Apart from disposal practices, the other developed treatment methods are the biological and physicochemical treatment methods.

Disposal practices

Disposal of OMW to lagoons: Calcium oxide is initially used as a flocculant for the treatment of OMW. Disposal of the treated supernatant to lagoons allows natural evaporation of the liquids [3]. The main disadvantage arisen from this method is the aesthetic deterioration of the surrounding areas, along with the bad odors and the growth of insects as well.

Controlled disposal of OMW to cultivated or uncultivated fields: OMW is transported and disposed in certain fields (e.g. olive tree fields). Studies have demonstrated that the controlled disposal of OMW to specific areas can have beneficial effects as it enriches soil with nutrients [4].

Constructed Wetlands Application (CWA): CWA is an environmentally friendly, low cost treatment method employed for the exploitation of agricultural wastewaters and for the removal of their initial organic matter [5]. This particular process involves the implementation of different substrates and plants aiming to achieve higher removals of the organic loading and the total suspended solids. In addition, CWA has been proposed as a pretreatment process for the more efficient treatment of many by-products such as OMW [6].

Biological methods

Biological methods can be applied on the condition that the phenolic compounds are previously removed or sufficiently reduced, because phenolics are toxic for the microorganisms that control biodegradation.

Aerobic digestion: In this method, aerobic microorganisms (bacteria[7] or fungi) are implemented for the degradation of organic fraction contained in the waste [8]. One of the main arisen disadvantages is the high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) that increases the energy consumption rendering the respective operational cost very high.

A new modern process based on aerobic digestion has been reported recently, for full-scale system treatment of OMW, namely Biological Trickling Filters (BTF). BTF have been employed in order to achieve higher efficiencies concerning the treatment of OMW. The trickling filter is composed of an open air cylindrical tank, containing polyethylene short open cylinders as packing material, and a perforated disk at the bottom of the filter in order the treated by-product to be collected. The final results seem to be very encouraging achieving a sufficient reduction of the initial COD (exceeding 50%) [9].

Anaerobic digestion: The main feature of anaerobic digestion is that biodegradation of the organic load takes place in the absence of oxygen. The produced methane compensates the energy demands for the operation of the process [10].

Co-composting methods for the production of an excellent quality of bio-compost: This is mainly an aerobic composting procedure under controlled conditions, where OMW can be mixed with olive kernels, chicken or sheep manure or horse manure, branches of olive trees, branches of vineyards, leaves, grapes, whey (dairies), winery waste, etc. The idea is to exploit other residuals (solids or liquids) which are produced by other agro industrial processes operating in the same area with the olive mills [11, 12].

Physicochemical methods 

Treatment with calcium oxide: Lime treatment has been proposed as a pretreatment procedure for the reduction of the polluting effect of OMW [13]. During this process, calcium oxide is employed as a flocculant resulting in a sufficient reduction of the initial organic load. Furthermore, the treatment with calcium oxide is proposed because of its low operational cost.

Coagulation/flocculation: Coagulation and flocculation is a relatively low cost process in which many flocculants (ferric chloride and polyelectrolytes) are employed in order to reduce both COD and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) [14, 15].

Electro-coagulation: In this process coagulation is inaugurated after the application of a electrical current in the solution. The electrodes employed, are mainly made of metals such as Al and Fe causing the release of ions and as a result the forming of nuclei for the onset of the coagulation [16]. This particular treatment method shows sufficiently high reduction of the phenolic content (exceeding 70%) rendering the by-product appropriate for further treatment [17, 18].

Acid Cracking pre-treatment: Acid cracking pre-treatment involves the addition of an acid (usually sulfuric acid) for the pre-treatment of the by-products. The acid addition results in a sufficient reduction of the pH (pH<2) enhancing the precipitation of the formed flocks and the reduction of the initial organic load (COD) [19]. Despite the fact that the COD removal is sufficiently lower in compare to the electro-coagulation process, Acid Cracking pre-treatment requires lower energy consumption rendering the operational cost more affordable [20].

Advance Oxidation Processes (AOP): Through this procedure, OMW is oxidized at conditions of room temperature and air pressure. Oxidation is achieved through electrolysis, ozonation, Fenton, Photo-Fenton and supercritical water oxidation.

The Electrolysis involves the oxidation of the organic load that takes place either directly on the anode or through the agents formed in the solution. The electrical voltage is the driving force for the onset of oxidation and as a matter of fact the operational cost of the process is very high [21]. During the ozonation process, O3 is used as oxidant and a sufficient reduction of phenolic content is achieved despite the rather low reduction of organic loading [22]. Fenton oxidation employs Fenton’s reagent, which consists of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and ferric ions (Fe (II)), for the waste’s oxidation through a series of reactions [23]. As it is not an electrically driven method, it requires low energy supply but the extensive need for H2 O2 increases the operational cost. During the Photo-Fenton oxidation, the efficiency of the method is enhanced due to the use of ultraviolet radiation which accelerates the regeneration of ferric ions [15, 24, 25]. The supercritical water oxidation involves the oxidation of the initial organic load that takes place at higher values of the critical water’s temperature and also in the presence of sufficient high values of pressure (25-35MPa) [16].

Membrane filtration: This method implements membranes of Micro-Filtration (MF), Ultra-Filtration (UF), Nano-Filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) for the fractionation of compounds from liquid solutions. This method has been successfully applied for the purification of OMW stream [26]. In a recent work, membrane filtration was implemented for the fractionation of phenolic compounds and mono or disaccharides in the concentrate stream of RO process. For further isolation of the phenolic content from the carbohydrates, the adsorption/ desorption in resins followed resulting in the formation of solutions substantially enriched in phenolic content [27].

Cooling Crystallization: Cooling crystallization is an alternative, low cost treatment method which was implemented because of the increasing need for selective recovery of high added value constituents, present in OMW. During this process, it is possible to recover high added value components of interest from the respective solution based on their freezing point [2, 28].

Conversion of 3-phase to 2-phase decanters and disposal of the solid-liquid to core mill plants: There are two types of extraction processes: the continuous three-phase centrifugation process which produces 20% oil, 50% three-phase liquid waste and 30% three-phase olive mill solid waste [29]. The two-phase uses a more effective centrifugation technology and produces oil as the liquid phase and a very wet, plastic olive cake as the solid phase [30, 31]. In the first case, solid waste (pomace) is completely dried and the oil is extracted by using hexane as solvent, while in the second case the two-phase olive mill waste (also called alperujo, olive wet husk, olive wet pomace or olive wet cake) consists of olive cake which contains the olive vegetation water in addition to the olive solids. This is doubling the amount of cake that is produced and rendering it unsuitable from the environmental point of view [31]. Specifically, on the one hand, core mill plants ‘adopt’ the treatment problem and pollution created before by olive mill enterprises. On the other hand, the new drying process that is used for the removal of humidity from semi-solid waste is responsible for air pollution causing extremely severe problem to the atmosphere.

Combination of the available treatment techniques

A stand-alone treatment solution for the efficient treatment of this effluent is not feasible because of the complex composition of OMW. For this reason, many researchers suggest the combination of different treatment techniques in order to contribute to the confrontation of this serious environmental phenomenon. For instance, the combination of the constructed wetland and electrochemical oxidation process was developed in the work of P. Grafias et al. [6]. The final results were very promising, denoting that for some experimental results a final removal of 95% was achieved for the case of color and COD removal rendering the final waste non toxic.

Furthermore in the work of Papaphilippou et al. [15], an innovative process for the exploitation of OMW effluent was adopted. As a first step, the coagulation/flocculation process was employed for the removal of the organic load and the phenolic content present in OMW. Solvent extraction with ethyl acetate followed for the recovery of the remaining phenolic content. As a final treatment method, the photo-Fenton oxidation was applied, achieving a reduction of the remaining COD and phenolic content by 73% and 87% respectively.

The combination of the available treatment methods is also proposed in the work of Zagklis et al. [27]. Initially, membrane filtration has been used for the fractionation of high added value phenolic compounds. Specifically, the reverse osmosis concentrate, containing the low molecular weight compounds was further treated with non ionic XAD4, XAD16 and XAD 7HP resins for the isolation of phenols from carbohydrates. The final results were very promising, reaching a final concentration of 378 g/L in gallic acid equivalents. To further research the possibility of extracting phenolic compounds, Kontos et al. [28] suggested the implementation of cooling crystallization process for the selective recovery of phenolic compounds from OMW.



As olive oil production is highly increased, the environmental consequence of the uncontrolled disposal of OMW is an issue of vital importance especially for the Mediterranean countries. The management of produced OMW constitutes a chronic and particularly unsolved problem, because of their high organic load and the very high concentration of phenolic compounds that classify OMW as hardly degradable. This is ascribed to the polyphenols resistance to biodegradation that turns OMW into phototoxic and hazardous material towards bacteria, plants and animals. Furthermore, the presence of these compounds in OMW makes the treatment of this wastewater problematic preventing OMW discharge to sewer systems or uncontrolled land application. As a matter of fact, the rapid increase of olive planted area in European countries; the lack of economically-viable solutions and the uncontrolled disposal of OMW are the main factors contributing to severe risks for water and soil quality. It is a very important issue for all the Mediterranean countries to follow the European Union’s regulation and develop alternative financial affordable techniques by combining different treatment methods. For instance, the implementation of membrane filtration, the resins adsorption/desorption and cooling crystallization may be the starting point for the development of a lab scale process aiming to the fully exploitation of the produced by-product. However for the development of an industrial pilot plant, the cooperation between university, industry and local authorities is required.


1. Paraskeva CA, Papadakis VG, Kanellopoulou DG, Koutsoukos PG, Angelopoulos KC. Membrane filtration of olive mill wastewater and exploitation of its fractions. Water Environ Res. 2007; 79: 421-429.

2. Kontos SS, Koutsoukos PG, Paraskeva CA. Removal and recovery of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater by cooling crystallization. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2014; 251: 319-328.

3. Kapellakis IE, Tsagarakis KP, Avramaki C, Angelakis AN. Olive mill wastewater management in river basins: A case study in Greece. Agricultural Water Management 2006; 82: 354-370.

4. Chartzoulakis K, Psarras G, Moutsopoulou M., Stefanoudaki E. Application of olive mill wastewater to a Cretan olive orchard: Effects on soil properties, plant performance and the environment. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2010; 138: 293-298.

5. Dordio A, Carvalho AJ. Constructed wetlands with light expanded clay aggregates for agricultural wastewater treatment. Sci Total Environ. 2013; 463-464: 454-61.

6. Grafias P, Xekoukoulotakis NP, Mantzavinos D, Diamadopoulos E. Pilot treatment of olive pomace leachate by vertical-flow constructed wetland and electrochemical oxidation: an efficient hybrid process. Water Res. 2010; 44: 2773-2780.

7. Tziotzios G, Michailakis S, Vayenas DV. Aerobic biological treatment of olive mill wastewater by olive pulp bacteria. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 2007; 60: 209-214.

8. Fountoulakis MS, Dokianakis SN, Kornaros ME, Aggelis GG, Lyberatos G. Removal of phenolics in olive mill wastewaters using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Water Res. 2002; 36: 4735-4744.

9. Michailides M, Panagopoulos P, Akratos CS, Tekerlekopoulou AG, Vayenas DV. A full-scale system for aerobic biological treatment of olive mill wastewater. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 2011; 86: 888-892.

10. Boari G, Brunetti A, Passino R, Rozzi A, Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill wastewaters. Agricultural Wastes. 1984; 10: 161-175.

11. Hachicha S, Cegarra J, Sellami F, Hachicha R, Drira N, Medhioub K, et al. Elimination of polyphenols toxicity from olive mill wastewater sludge by its co-composting with sesame bark. J Hazard Mater. 2009; 161: 1131-1139.

12. Chowdhury AKMMB, Konstantinou F, Damati A, Akratos CS, Vlastos D. Tekerlekopoulou AG, et al. Is physicochemical evaluation enough to characterize olive mill waste compost as soil amendment? The case of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2015; 93: 94-102.

13. Aktas ES, Imre S, Ersoy L. Characterization and lime treatment of olive mill wastewater. Water Res. 2001; 35: 2336-2340.

14. Iakovides IC, Pantziaros AG, Zagklis DP, Paraskeva CA. Effect of electrolytes/polyelectrolytes on the removal of solids and organics from olive mill wastewater. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 2014.

15. Papaphilippou PC, Yiannapas C, Politi M, Daskalaki VM, Michael C, Kalogerakis N, et al. Sequential coagulation–flocculation, solvent extraction and photo-Fenton oxidation for the valorization and treatment of olive mill effluent. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2013; 224: 82-88.

16. Zagklis DP, Arvaniti EC, Papadakis VG, Paraskeva CA. Sustainability analysis and benchmarking of olive mill wastewater treatment methods. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 2013; 88: 742-750.

17. Khoufi S, Feki F, Sayadi S. Detoxification of olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation and sedimentation processes. J Hazard Mater. 2007; 142: 58-67.

18. Hanafi F, Assobhei O, Mountadar M. Detoxification and discoloration of Moroccan olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation. J Hazard Mater. 2010; 174: 807-812.

19. Hande Gursoy-Haksevenler B, Arslan-Alaton I. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by chemical processes: effect of acid cracking pretreatment. Water Sci Technol. 2014; 69: 1453-1461.

20. Coskun T, Debik E, Demir NM, Operational Cost Comparison of Several Pre-Treatment Techniques for OMW Treatment. CLEAN – Soil Air Water. 2012; 40: 95-99.

21. Papastefanakis N, Mantzavinos D, Katsaounis A. DSA electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater on Ti/RuO2 anode. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 2010; 40: 729-737.

22. Katsoyiannis IA, Canonica S, von Gunten U. Efficiency and energy requirements for the transformation of organic micropollutants by ozone, O3 /H2 O2 and UV/H2 O2 . Water Res. 2011; 45: 3811-3822.

23. llel M, Belaid C, Boussahel R, Ksibi M, Montiel A, Elleuch B. Olive mill wastewater degradation by Fenton oxidation with zero-valent iron and hydrogen peroxide. J Hazard Mater. 2009; 163: 550-554.

24. Ahmed B, Limem E, Abdel-Wahab A, Nasr B. Photo-Fenton Treatment of Actual Agro-Industrial Wastewaters. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2011; 50: 6673-6680.

25. Michael I, Panagi A, Ioannou LA, Frontistis Z, Fatta-Kassinos D. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilotscale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation. Water Research. 2014; 60: 28-40.

26. Paraskeva CA, Papadakis VG, Tsarouchi E, Kanellopoulou DG, Koutsoukos PG. Membrane processing for olive mill wastewater fractionation. Desalination. 2007; 213: 218-229.

27. Zagklis DP, Vavouraki AI, Kornaros ME, Paraskeva CA. Purification of olive mill wastewater phenols through membrane filtration and resin adsorption/desorption. J Hazard Mater. 2015; 285: 69-76.

28. Kontos SS, Koutsoukos PG, Paraskeva CA. Application of combined physicochemical techniques for the efficient treatment of olive mill wastewaters. Desalination and Water Treatment. 2015; 1-10.

29. Rincón B, Fermoso F.G, Borja R. Olive Oil Mill Waste Treatment: Improving the Sustainability of the Olive Oil Industry with Anaerobic Digestion Technology. 2012.

30. Arvanitoyannis IS, Kassaveti A, Stefanatos S. Olive oil waste treatment: a comparative and critical presentation of methods, advantages & disadvantages. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007; 47: 187-229.

31. Vlyssides AG, Loizides M, Karlis PK. Integrated strategic approach for reusing olive oil extraction by-products. Journal of Cleaner Production; 2004; 12: 603-611.

Received : 10 Sep 2015
Accepted : 28 Sep 2015
Published : 30 Sep 2015
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
TEST Journal of Dentistry
ISSN : 1234-5678
Launched : 2014
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X