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  • ISSN: 2333-7141
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Kaveh Amini and Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz*
    Abstract: Contamination of drinking water with pathogenic agents is a serious threat to the population. The potential presence of bacteria, viruses and protozoa requires efficient and effective monitoring methods that allow the detection and quantification of these pathogens. Conventional methods of pathogen detection in water primarily rely on culturing, a pre-concentration procedure and some biochemical identification which require a significant period of time for identification ranging from 24 hours to up to a week. Recently significant efforts have been made to develop biosensors capable of rapid and real-time detection of pathogenic agents. This report summarizes the recent developments of biosensor systems used for this purpose.
    O. Roger Anderson*
    Abstract: Global warming has brought major changes in arctic terrestrial ecosystems, including significantly increased efflux of terrestrial respiratory CO2 to the atmosphere, thus potentially exacerbating atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and contributing to increase global warming. This brief review focuses especially on some recent advances in our knowledge of how global climate change is affecting high latitude terrestrial microbial communities and their role in respiratory CO2 release to the atmosphere. Although substantial research has been published on changes in arctic ecosystems due to increased warming, including broad scale assessments of soil respiratory CO2 efflux, much less is known about changes that are occurring in eukaryotic and bacterial communities or the contributions of belowground microbial communities to CO2 efflux at high latitudes. Some current advances in understanding the effects of warming on arctic soil microbial communities, and their respiratory responses, are reviewed. Moreover, some remaining challenging research areas are identified.
    George F. Antonious*
    Abstract: Sustainable Agriculture satisfies human food and fiber needs, makes the most efficient use of on-farm resources and integrates natural biological cycles, enhances the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole, and sustains the economic viability of farm operations. A farm that is able to produce continuously, yet has negative effects on environmental quality elsewhere, does not support sustainable agriculture. Over-application of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers or animal manure, which can improve productivity of a farm but can pollute nearby rivers and coastal waters does not contribute to sustainable agriculture. The lack of pesticide field dissipation data and the increasing concern about agricultural chemicals and their impact on surface and ground water quality have made this an international issue. Pesticide adsorption to soil is related more to soil organic matter than to other soil chemical and physical properties, therefore, addition of recycled waste as soil amendments having high organic matter content is a management practice that should be exploited to trap pesticides in situ in agricultural fields that would have been transported into rivers and streams contaminating natural water resources. The use of recycled waste for land farming could decrease dependence on synthetic fertilizers and provide alternatives to farmers dealing with the escalating production costs associated with increasing costs of energy. Soil management practices that bind pesticides and excess nutrients to soil particles, reducing pesticides, nitrate, nitrate, and phosphate in runoff and seepage water are vital to sustainable crop production systems and environmental quality. Soil organic matter has an important effect on the bioavailability, persistence, biodegradability, leaching, and volatility of chemicals in soil that could intercept pesticide-contaminated runoff from agricultural fields and provide a potential solution to pesticide contamination of surface and see page water from farm- lands. Mitigation and removal of excess pesticide residues before they runoff and enter bodies of water is the main focus of the research plan at Kentucky State University (KSU)/Environmental Science at the College of Agriculture. Studies at KSU research farm indicated that bio filters installed down the field slope reduced runoff water volume by 44% and herbicides (trifluralin and clomazone) residues in runoff water by 55% and 38%, respectively. These findings revealed that bio filters offer a viable means of treating pesticides in runoff water arising from agricultural fields.
    Mini Review
    Tayeb A, Hamou A and Debbah S
    Abstract: Algeria, a Mediterranean country closer to Europe participates and covers a certain part of the world energy demand through its natural gas and petroleum poles among which Arzew industrial pole. The present paper focuses on the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the atmospheric pollution issued from petroleum and petrochemical activities since 1963. The evaluations allowed modeling the pollution using Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOA) code. In this regards, a carbon atoms balance analysis has been carried out for the carbon and nitrogen at the input and output of plants of Liquefied Natural Gas (GNL) , Liquefied Petrol Gas (LPG), Ammonia, Methanol, industrial Electricity and Water as well as the energy used for the transformation of these products. The elements used for this evaluation were the quality certificate of gas, final products and the exploitation of the recorded gas flow rates and products. The results obtained were converted to equivalent carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide gas (CO2) with an oxidation factor of 0.995. This has allowed plotting the atmospheric emissions curves of CO2 since 1963 up to 2015, with an extrapolation up to 2035 by integrating the new projects in the zone under consideration and taking into account the likelihood evolution of the world energy demand. It is worthy of note that it is impossible to accurately evaluate the emission of Green House Gases (GHG) by equipments such as furnaces, boilers, torches because of the variation of the flow rates, chemical composition and gas combustion colorific capability of the equipment. Thus a global analysis input-output is made for each production plant. The resulting deviation from these two analyses represents the total emission of Gas CO2. The present work has been modeled by simulations using ALOA software code.
    Case Report
    Spyros S. Kontos, Iakovos C. Iakovides, Alexis G. Pantziaros and Christakis A. Paraskeva*
    Abstract: The current study summarizes the available methods and techniques for the effective management of Olive Mill Wastewaters (OMW) that is the main by-product from the process of olive oil production. OMW is characterized by the very high organic and phenolic content that inhibits its biodegradation rendering it responsible for many severe environmental phenomena. Despite the fact that to a large extent OMW is considered as a waste, this work is related with the concept that the olive mill by-products are resources and not waste, aiming to the development of innovative available techniques. Specifically, OMW contains high added value constituents which can be isolated by different treatment methods and then exploited into different scientific fields such as the food industry, pharmaceuticals, etc. As a matter of fact, the paper is associated with the description of all the available treatment methods of OMW in order to combat the extent of OMW pollution, experienced mainly in the Mediterranean countries. As an ultimate purpose, the development of an integrated treatment process of OMW is proposed aiming to the fully exploitation of the by-product.
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