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  • ISSN: 2333-6714
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Laura Bucio-Lopez, Gabriela Pinon-Zarate, Katia Jarquin-Yanez, Beatriz Hernandez-Tellez, Miguel Angel Herrera-Enriquez, and Andres Eliu Castell-Rodriguez*
    Dendritic cells (DCs) may secrete nanometricparticules named exosomes that are implicated in antigen presentation to T lymphocytes, by mean of the expression of MHC II, costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules on its surface, which may determine the type of immune response developed. Also, it has recently proposed the use of exosomes as a new strategy for the generation of cell free anti-cancer immunotherapies, so it is important to know the phenotype differences between exosomes of DCs treated with different molecules such as IFNγ, TNFα and LPS, in order to avoid the induction of immunological tolerance in immunotherapy. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare the exosomes phenotype secreted by DCs treated with different stimuli. For this, DCs were treated with 500U or 10000U of IFNγ, TNFα, and LPS to generate different phenotypes. Exosomes were coupled to α-CD11c microbeads to detect the DCs exosomes by flow cytometry. To compare the phenotype of the DCs and the exosomes, costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules were analyzed by flow cytometry. As results, immature DCs and the DCs treated with 500U IFNγ, exhibited a tolerogenic phenotype, while the exosomes produced by this DCs exhibited low levels of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules. In contrast, DCs treated with 10,000U IFNγ, TNF-α and LPS showed an activator phenotype, and their exosomes had high levels of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules. In conclusion, this study becomes important since disclosed not only the phenotype of DCs cultured with different treatments but also the phenotype of the exosomes produced by DCs
    Review Article
    Derya UNAL* and Derya Erdogdu
    Systemic reactions to insect sting can be life-threatening. Life-threatening systemic reactions to insect sting are estimated to occur in 0.4% to 0.8 % of children and in 3 % of adults. Hymenoptera stings that includes Apoidea (bees), Vespoidea (wasps, hornets, and yellow jackets), and Formicidae (ants) cause more deaths than other insects all over the world. Hymenoptera venom include mixtures of numerous relevant allergens .The diagnosis of venom allergy is based on both of clinical history and positive skin test response, and/or specific immunoglobulin E antibodies. Allergic reactions may develop after stinging by hymenoptera venom. It is ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. The treatment of large local reactions is oral antihistamines and corticosteroid therapy. Patients with any signs or symptoms of anaphylaxis should immediately receive epinephrine intramuscularly, emergency medical attention and treatment. After acute treatment of a sting reaction, patients should be given a prescription for an epinephrine autoinjector. Patients with experiences of systemic reactions after hymenoptera venom sting with positive specific IgE should receive venom immunotherapy. Venom immunotherapy is the only causal treatment to prevent further systemic sting reactions. The protective rate of venom immunotherapy is reported 98% in patients with had venom anaphylaxis history.
    Kleber Santiago Freitas e Silva*
    The p53 protein is a classic tumor suppressor protein related to cancer and a series of other diseases such as endometriosis, atherosclerosis, and infertility. It regulates cell cycle progression and protects DNA against several types of damage. The p53 structure comprises three main domains, the transactivation domain, a DNA-binding core domain and a C-terminal domain related to down regulation of the DNA binding domain. The protein p53 is indirectly related to the immunological response of tumorigenesis. Irregular protein-protein interactions of p53 may interfere with the immune scenery within tumor environment leading to inflammation. The interactome of p53 contains more than one thousand protein interactors. Proteins such as MDM2, MDM4, BRCA1, TP53BP1 and PML interact with p53 in order to maintain DNA integrity and genomic stability. Moreover, p53 interacts with immunological response-related proteins. Inflammation influences the onset of cancer, thus p53 could play immunological roles in tumorigenesis through immune response. Irregular protein-protein interactions of p53 may interfere with the immune scenery within tumor environment leading to inflammation and p53 interact with immunological response-related proteins such as CREBBP, SIRT1 and TRAF6. Here, we analyzed the interface of interaction between p53 and three binding partners, MDM2, CREBBP and SIRT1. We identified hot spots that could be of importance for the conformational structure of those proteins, their function and pattern of interaction with their partners. We have also shown that some of the hot spot amino acid residues present at the interface of interaction are polymorphic, which could disrupt the binding of p53 and partners, thus, leading to a higher susceptibility to cancer. Future studies should be performed in order to design small molecules that could Future studies should be conducted in order to design small molecules that could modulate the interaction between p53 and MDM2, CREBBP and SIRT1 in order to efficiency in the interaction, avoid disturbances immunological microenvironment of cells and the maintenance of genomic stability.
    Review Article
    Nisansala Chandimali and Tae-Don Kim*
    Functional capability of effector CD8+ T cells on pathogen-infected cells to kill them requires the activation of naive CD8+ T cells by triggering the stimulation of T cell receptors (TCR) and co-stimulatory molecules. The proper activation of effector CD8+ T cells depends on the co-stimulation of both TCR and co-stimulatory molecules. Without co-stimulation effector CD8+ T cells are unable to produce activation-inducing genes such as IL-2 and proliferate upon with specific antigen. This condition refers as the anergy formation of effector CD8+ T cells. Activation and anergy formation of effector CD8+ T cells depend on the intracellular Ca2+ signaling, as it regulates the responsiveness of CD8+ T cells. This contribution of Ca2+ signaling has been well studied in effector CD8+ T cells with possible molecular mechanisms. But, the specific molecular mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling in naive CD8+ T cells related to anergy formation have not yet been well discussed, other than our previous study which reported about the contribution of miR-150 to regulate Ca2+ signaling in naive CD8+ T cells thereby regulating the responsiveness. Therefore, in this review we have summarized the already known role of Ca2+ signaling in naive and CD8+ T cells. Specially, we have highlighted the role of miR-150 in the regulation of naive CD8+ T cells’ responsiveness.
    Special Issue on Multiple Sclerosis
    Review Article
    James Tracey, Yang Mao-Draayer, and John T. Stoffel*
    Abstract:
    Patients with multiple sclerosis are frequently bothered by urinary symptoms, including urinary urgency, incontinence and retention. Although referral to a urologic provider is frequently needed to treat these symptoms, the number visits can be reduced or even potentially avoided when treatment for urinary symptoms is initiated by the primary care team. First line therapy for urinary symptoms includes classifying urinary symptoms as a storage or emptying problem, measuring impact of the problem, reviewing behavioral therapy options, and discussing appropriate pharmacologic interventions.
    Case Report
    Sarah J. Clark, Qin Wang, and Yang Mao-Draayer*
    Abstract:
    For multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, discontinuing natalizumab and starting another disease modifying therapy (DMT) is complicated by two paradoxical considerations: 1) too short of a drug holiday might increase the risk of Progressive Multifocal Leukencephalopathy (PML) due to drug overlap; 2) too long of a drug holiday may increase the risk of disease activity while the patient is without drug modulation. In this case report, a 50 year-old male with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) showed no signs of increased disease activity or PML during a nine month drug holiday after natalizumab treatment and for 24 months after beginning fingolimod therapy and remained relapse free. This suggests that a nine month break between natalizumab and fingolimod treatment may be an appropriate time length in patients with stable RRMS disease activity. While further analysis is required to determine the most appropriate drug holiday after natalizumab, this case report may help clinicians make such treatment decisions for patients with less aggressive disease.
    Cynthia Wang, America Ruiz, and Yang Mao-Draayer*
    Abstract:
    Relapses are the hallmark features of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). True relapses may be challenging to accurately diagnose. A clinician must rely on a combination of history, exam findings, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging to decide whether or not to treat for a presumed relapse. Although many consider MRI as the gold standard diagnostic test, it may not be rapidly accessible and still could miss lesions. In light of this diagnostic complexity, future directions including development and validation of a scale to assess MS relapse probability and severity would be useful to multiple sclerosis specialists and practicing neurologists. Given the complex pathophysiology of MS, more research is needed to ascertain the validity of promising biomarkers for predicting relapse.
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