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  • ISSN: 2373-938X
    VorinostatSAHA Promotes Hyper-Radiosensitivity in Wild Type p53 Human Glioblastoma Cells
    Authors: Eric Diss, NarasimhaRao Nalabothula, Duc Nguyen, Elizabeth Chang, Young Kwok, and France Carrier*
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a very aggressive and locally invasive tumor. The current standard of care is partial brain radiation therapy (60 Gy) concurrently with the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ).
    A Novel Bioabsorbable Sleeve for Staple Line Reinforcement in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) For Morbid Obesity: Possible Usefulness for the Future Application in Operations for Alimentary Tract Cancers
    Authors: Chouhei Sakakura1*, Yuhki Ozamoto2, Takeshi Togawa2, Akeo Hagiwara2, Eigo Otsuji1, Hitoshi Fujiwara1, Kazuma Okamoto1, Daisuke Ichikawa1, Masayoshi Nakanishi1, Ken Kubota1, Noriaki Kuriu1, Hisashi Ikoma1, Atsushi Shiozaki1, Shuhei Komatsu1, Yasutoshi Murayama1, Rei Morimura1 and Hiroki Konishi1
     
    Extracellular Functions of Galectin-3: An Update
    Authors: Josiah Ochieng*
    Galectin-3 is a multifunctional protein which plays pivotal roles in cell physiology, covering diverse mechanisms ranging from immune surveillance [1] to metastatic spread of cancer [2].
    Latest Articles
    Short Communication
    Narasimharao Nalabothula, Douglas D. Ross, and France Carrier*
    The basic principle of the PCR-Stop assay is that a DNA polymerase encountering a break or an adduct will fall off the template or stall. Consequently, the amount of amplified DNA is inversely proportional to the levels of DNA damage. Though promising as a potential tool for predicting and monitoring anticancer drug efficacy, the original procedure never developed into a reliable and well accepted clinical test due to a number of technical difficulties including reproducibility and sensitivity. Here, we optimized the original PCR-Stop parameters to be compatible with the sensitivity of Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) and have developed an effective tool to reliably measure the efficacy of VP16 (etoposide) and Doxorubicin, two Topoisomease II (Topo II) inhibitors. Validation of the predicted PCR-stop-RT-PCR response was performed by evaluation of the levels ofhistone H2AX phosphorylation (?H2AX) and correlation with survival assays in tissue culture cells. Moreover, the PCR-Stop-RT-PCR assay was tested on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) of two leukemia patients treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (HDACI) VorinostatSAHA. Our results indicate that VorinostatSAHA increased the sensitivity of both patients PBMC to VP16 by about 40%. This assay could be adapted to a variety of anticancer drugs and use for assessment of drug efficacy, suitability or optimization.
    Yoshio Naya*, Eiichi Konishi, Natsuki Takaha, Masakatsu Oishi, Takashi Ueda, Fumiya Hongo, Tsuneharu Miki, and Osamu Ukimura
    Objective: To observe the nucleus of tumor cell using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), we examined ethacridine as new contrast agent.
    Recently, usefulness of pCLE by using fluorescein for detection of urothelial carcinomawas reported. Fluorescein did not reveal cell nucleus and cytoplasm. In this study, we examined ethacridine for pCLE to observe the nuclei of urothelial carcinoma cells ex vivo.
    Methods: 3 samples were obtained from TURBT specimens. Samples from freshly excised urothelial cancerous lesion were retrieved from resected tissue. The samples were placed on the glass slide, immersed immediately in ethacridine solution (0.01% in saline) for 60 secs, and subsequently rinsed in normal saline solution, and pCLE imaging was performed. After observation, the samples were fixed by formalin on the glass slide, followed by placement of a cover glass, and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The imaging of pCLE was compared with histologic findings under the same horizontal view.
    Results: All 3 patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma, stained nuclei were observed. The morphological patterns of pCLE were like those of histopathological study.
    Conclusion: pCLE with ethacridine can clearly detect the cancerous lesion. pCLE by using intravesical ethacridine instillation might be useful and less invasive.
    Case Report
    Ladelfa M Fatima and Monte Martin*
    Melanoma Antigens Genes (MAGE) constitutes a mutagenic family divided in two subfamilies, MAGE-I and MAGE-II, according to its tissue pattern expression. While MAGE-I in adult humans are only expressed in testis and tumors tissues, those belonging to MAGE-II subfamily are ubiquitously expressed. During the last decade, functional characterization of MAGE proteins points to a role in transcription regulation.
    E2F1 is a member of the E2F family and is among the transcription factors reported to be modulated by MAGE proteins. In this article we will focus on reported cases of E2F1 modulation by members of MAGE-I and MAGE-II subfamilies and the resulting biological consequences observed in normal and tumor cells.
    Carlos Robles, Manuel Conde, Johanna Benedetti, Rafael Medina, Pilar Sancho, Belen Congregado, Ignacio Osman and Ignacio Duran*
    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent about 95% of all testicular malignancies. Since the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and the integration of systemic treatments with surgery and radiotherapy, GCTs have become the paradigm of solid curable neoplasms. In order to achieve excellent outcomes is critical the management in institutions with extensive experience and a multidisciplinary approach integrating all the available treatment tools. Ssurgery is key in the treatment of the primary tumor and in the resection of residual masses after systemic therapy. However, persistently elevated serum tumor markers after chemotherapy have been traditionally considered a contraindication to surgery prompting the use of systemic treatment. Yet, a selected group of patients with elevated markers might benefit from a post-chemotherapy resection with a curative intent named "desperation surgery". The following case illustrates the role of desperation surgery in rendering disease free a patient with a long history of advanced non-seminomatous GCT that had been considered chemo-refractory and with no further treatment options.
    Review Article
    Avgoustou Constantinos*
    Anastomotic leakage is a dreadful complication of colorectal surgery, as it greatly increases the morbidity and mortality, irrespective of the type of anastomosis performed. It has also been associated with increased local recurrence in malignant cases and reduced survival. However, despite proper caution and excellent surgical technique, some anastomotic leaks are inevitable. The frequency of anastomotic leakage is high in certain circumstances, such as emergency colorectal surgery, resection of low rectal tumours and malnutrition. This report seeks to highlight the importance of two special risk factors in adult anastomotic healing and function, the impaired immune defense and the colonic and rectal neuronal malformations.
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