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  • ISSN: 2333-6447
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Brian K. Foutch*
    I report the results of a study that investigated the combined effects of gender and age on luminous efficiency as measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Luminous efficiency functions were derived for 13 male and 14 female color normal subjects between the ages of 8 and 72 years. Three age groups were used for recruitment and analysis: under 18 years (young), 21-45 years (adult) and over 60 years (older adult). Stimuli were 2° circular patches of monochromatic light (420 – 676 nm) presented in Newtonian-view. Each stimulus alternated at 20 Hz and was adjusted by observers to match the brightness of a 3.4 cd/m2 broadband reference patch of equal size. Normalized relative luminous efficiency data were analyzed across wavelengths by multivariate measures analysis of variance with gender and age group as fixed factors. Univariate analyses were repeated for each age group with gender as a fixed factor and again for males and females with age group as a fixed factor. There were no main or interaction effects of gender or age group across wavelengths. Older adult subjects did have significantly lower relative efficiency at low wavelengths (420 and 450 nm). Significant correlations were also found between relative efficiency and age for half of the tested wavelengths. Correlation results were similar when analyzed separately for males and females. These results provide support for requiring age-matched samples in studies of luminous efficiency, particularly for very young subjects. There was, however, little evidence that males differed from females overall or for any age group.
    Editorial
    Roberto Kaplan*
    Myopia has reached epidemic proportions. By 2050, half of the world population will be Myopic, unless a truly effective prevention and remedial approach is implemented.
    Special Issue on Eye & Contact Lens
    Research Article
    Yasuyo Nishi, Kazuno Negishi*, Kazuhiro Watanabe and Kazuo Tsubota
    Abstract
    Purpose: To determine the optimal design for pinhole type contact lenses (PCLs) without refractive power for obtaining a full range of resolution (clear vision) from far to near using a visual simulation system.
    Methods: The PCLs had a 6.0-mm diameter black opaque central zone with varying clear central zones. The total diameter and the base curve of the PCL were 14.0 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The visual simulation system consisted of a model eye and a charge-coupled device camera. The different PCLs were placed in front of the model eye and evaluated. Visual simulations were performed using this system at 5, 1, and 0.3 meters through a 3-mm aperture using Landolt visual acuity (VA) charts with different PCLs (clear central zone sizes, 2.0, 1.8, 1.6, 1.4, and 1.2 mm). The contrast levels of the gaps of the Landolt VA charts in the simulated images were analyzed using Photoshop software to determine the optimal PCL design.
    Results: The PCL's with a1.2-mm and 1.4-mm clear central zone maintained the best resolution and contrast of the simulated images for all distances. Conclusions: Our results suggested that a PCL without refractive power might be useful to obtain a full range of vision from far to near if designed optimally.
    Review Article
    Madhu Dyavaiah*, Phaniendra. A and Sudarshan. SJ2
    Abstract
    Contact lens (CL) wear is a common predisposing factor of microbial keratitis (MK). MK in CL wearers is a potentially sight-threatening corneal infection. The causative organism in all MK varies by geographical location and predisposition factors. The most commonly recovered causative organism in CL related MK is bacteria followed by fungi and Acanthamoeba. This review focuses on the incidence and causative organisms of MK in CL wearers. Awareness of contributory risk factors of MK in CL wearers is important to follow safer lens wear modalities and hygiene regimes to avoid possible infection. In developed nations, most MK in contact lens wear is by bacterial origin, whereas fungus is the leading causative agent in developing countries. The most common pathogens implicated in bacterial keratitis are Staphylococci and Pseudomonas. Some of the fungi that commonly cause fungal keratitis include Fusarium, Aspergillus and Candida species. Acanthamoeba keratitis is also a growing clinical problem both in developed and developing countries.
    Special Issue on Amblyopia and Strabismus
    Research Article
    Jamie C. Ho*, Yi Pang, Mai Ngoc Luu
    Abstract
    The association between amblyopia depth and amount of anisometropia remains controversial. Deeper amblyopia is generally associated with a larger magnitude of anisometropia; however, there are also many observed cases of deep amblyopia despite small amounts of anisometropia. The current standard of care in amblyopia treatment is based primarily on past research conducted on hyperopic participants. Our retrospective study reviewed the visual outcomes for forty eligible patients, ages 3-18 years old, with anisometropic amblyopia that were categorized into hyperopic, myopic, and astigmatic refractive groups. Analysis of variance comparatively analyzed the baseline and final acuity achieved by the three refractive groups. All patients responded to treatment with a group mean ( SD) inter ocular acuity improvement of 0.28 0.20 log MAR. There was no statistical significance in amount of improvement achieved among the three groups. Final inter ocular acuity difference was strongly correlated to baseline inter ocular acuity difference (p<0.0001, r=0.79). Amblyopia depth was correlated with magnitude of anisometropia in the hyperopia group (P=0.02, r=0.51), but not the myopic group (P=0.27, r=0.32). The implication of differing refractive etiology in amblyogenesis is a topic that requires further study. Still our results provide evidence that therapeutic treatment should be provided for all anisometropic amblyopes since all groups, regardless of refractive nature, were able to achieve comparable visual outcomes.
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