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  • ISSN: 2374-0124
    Volume 5, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Fauzan Saputra*
    Objective: This study aims to review scientific literature about Mental Health Problems (MHP) in Indonesian population, especially children and important findings of the studies.
    Materials & methods: Two methods of searching were conducted; English peer-reviewed literature from Pub Med and MEDLINE and the keywords included Mental Health Problems, children, Indonesia. Specifically, mood disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, phobia, insomnia, ADHD and OCD were also included. Several related studies published in Bahasa (Indonesian Language) were searched in Indonesian version of Google with “masalahkesehatanjiwa” and “anak” as the keywords.
    Results & discussion: At least, there are eight studies conducted in Indonesia related to MHP in children both in national and international publications. The studies applied various instruments and revealed different results. The majority of the studies found that Indonesian children had risk for MHP, some factors such as academic competence, family relationship, and maternal parenting stress related to MHP, andsome intervention-based researches reported to have effective result in this population, such as atypical antipsychotic in adolescents with schizophrenia, Stroop test in children with ADHD and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in children with emotional and behavioral problems. More studies should be conducted to investigate factors related to MHP based on Indonesian population as well as interventions to minimize the impact of MHP in children in Indonesia.
    Research Article
    Sharon M. Holder*, Calvert Warren, and Christian Ochonma
    Introduction: Mental illness is highly prevalent in the United States and approximately 43.8 million people experience mental illness in a year. The number of people seeking care for mental illness in the emergency department (ED) is increasing and it is the fastest growing component of emergency medical services.
    Methods: We employed retrospective data of 22,711 psychiatric visits by adults aged 19 years and above who visited the ED of a tertiary medical center over a 5-year period (2010-2014). We studied demographics characteristics of the population and we examined psychiatric visits and discharge diagnoses by date of presentation and service hour. Proportions, frequency and chi-square values were provided.
    Results: The number of ED psychiatric visits increased by 5.1% in 2014 compared to 2010. During the study period, males accounted for most visits (55%) and most visits (56%) occurred after regular office hours. The period June-August accounted for the highest number of visits (26.57, n= 6,035) followed by March-May (25.98%, n=5,900). There were more visits on weekdays and Tuesday had the highest number of visits (15%, n=3,409) and the least number of visits was on Sunday (13% n=2,956). The most prevalent ED psychiatric diagnoses were substance use disorder (37.7), anxiety disorders (20.7), mood disorders (20.1) and schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (12.8%).
    Implications: There is a necessity to meet the growing needs of people with mental health problems using the ED and also address factors driving the use of the ED for mental health problems.
    Mukhopadhyay AK*
    Bioinformatics of transition from signal to knowledge, experience and wisdom appears opaque. This transition has been described through four hierarchically nested specific operations to structurized the ladder of cognition. Cells could be classified according to their level in the cognitive ladder. The specific substrate proteins as required for desirable level of cellular cognition show a remarkable similar pattern in dynamical hierarchical structure in concurrence with ontological ladders in informatics, mathematics, logic and linguistics. Within the cell, several factors together make the cognitive and decision-making system labyrinthine, where molecules respond to their intangible operators as the strings respond to the fingers of a sitar player. There emerges the broad outline of organization in the design of unified systems science. The outcomes have promises for pathology and molecular medicine, cell biology and synthetic biology, psychology and psychiatry, artificial intelligence and bio-robotics.
    Alicia Gill Rossiter*, Rita F. D’ Aoust, Michaela R. Shafer, Mireya Martin and Kevin E. Kip
    Purpose: To examine the use of Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART) as an emerging, brief, non-invasive treatment for Military Sexual Assault-related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (MST-PTSD) including potential minimal dropout.
    Design: This was a feasibility study utilizing an evidence-based, best practice intervention for PTSD. The aim was to examine treatment success in relation to reductions of PTSD symptomology, psychological distress, sleep dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and guilt hopelessness.
    Method: Pre and post treatment surveys were used to evaluate ART as a treatment modality for reducing MST-PTSD.
    Findings: After delivery of ART, both statistically and clinically significant improvements were reported for symptoms of MST-PTSD including psychological trauma, psychological distress, sleep, depression, anxiety, and guilt hopelessness.
    Conclusions: Results from this feasibility study indicate that ART is a viable treatment option for women with MTS-PTSD.
    Clinical Relevance: MST is the leading cause of PTSD in women veterans. With upwards of 6,083 military cases of sexual assault reported in fiscal year 2015, women in the military experiencing sexual harassment and/or sexual assault suffer from multiple physical and psychological health comorbidities. We contend that ART may potentially be more cost effective, decrease wait time to care, and decrease the stigma associated with mental health services by providing an effective therapeutic option that is less invasive and of shorter duration than current established therapies.
    Case Report
    Sharon Kelley and Carri-Ann M. Gibson*
    This case reviews a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder and hypertension who experienced an acute decompensation in his mental health status while enrolled in our Veterans Treatment Court. The symptoms were attributed to his posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis however he was also receiving lithium to address his co-morbid bipolar disorder diagnosis. This case emphasizes the potential danger of misdiagnosing signs and symptoms of chronic lithium toxicity when treating patients with a concurrent psychiatric diagnosis such as posttraumatic stress disorder.
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