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  • ISSN: 2378-931X
    Copper Accumulation in Wisconsin Holsteins with Indications of Oxidative Liver Damage
    Authors: Douglas Lyman*, Laura J. Clark and Kristin Campbell
    Abstract: An extensive review of Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory(WVDL) accessions along with the results of slaughter house surveys indicate that copper is accumulating in the livers of Wisconsin Holsteins of all ages.
    An Unusual Case of Residuel Ovary Syndrome Associated with Subsurface Epithelial Cyst Adenoma Leading Hyperestrogenism and Transmissible Venereal Tumor in a Spayed Female Dog
    Authors: Gozde R. Ozalp, M. Ozgur Ozyigit, Hayrettin Yildiz, Volkan Ipek, Sevda Inan Ozturkoglu and O. Nuri Akcay
    Abstract: A six-year-old female spayed Alaska bitch was presented for vaginal bleeding. Cytological, ultrasonographic and endocrinological examinations revealed an ovarian...
    Latest Articles
    Research Article
    Tigist Ashagrie* and Demeke Zewde
    Cross-sectional study was conducted in west Gojam and Awi Zones of Amhara national region of northwest Ethiopia, from September 2020 - March 2021 to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomsis and to evaluate its association risk factors. Blood samples collected from 571 randomly selected cattle were subjected to parasitological and haematological analysis. For the parasitological survey, blood samples were examined using a buffy coat technique. The packed cell volume (PCV) value of each animal was also measured using hematocrit reader. The overall prevalence of trypanosomsis was 4.7%. The most common trypanosome species identified were Trypanosomes congolense 41% (11/27) followed by T. vivax 37% (10/27) and 22% (6/27) were mixed infection. The prevalence showed no significant difference in susceptibility between sex and age groups, but has significant difference in body condition and PCV status of animals. The overall anemia prevalence in the area was 38.2% (218/571). The anemia prevalence was significantly higher in trypanosome positive cattle (81.5%) than in non infected animals (36%) (P<0.05). The mean PCV value of the infected animals was lower (20.3% ± 3.2698%) compared to non infected animals (29.3 ± 3.7401%). There was statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in the PCV values of infected and non infected animals. T. congolense (18.3%) infection reduced PCV higher than T. vivax (21.5%) infection, but it is not statistically significant (P>0.05). In general, this study reveals that trypanosomsis pretense a risk to cattle production and productivity in the area and also contributed to the occurrence of anemia.
    Konto Mohammed*, K.M. Mohammed, Musa I. Ahmed, Mohammed Mustapha, Falmata Kyari
    Introduction: This research was designed in order to determine the ectoparasitic burden of lice infestation in local and exotic breed of chickens and the relationships between age, sex, and management status of the infested and uninfested birds.
    Methodology: A total of 515 chickens were examined at 12 different locations of Maiduguri and environs for the presence of lice in which the prevalence were obtained from each location; in order to determine the ectoparasitic burden of lice infestation in local and exotic breed of chickens and the relationships between age, sex, and management status of the infested and uninfested birds between April, 2018 and June, 2019. Result: The overall prevalence of ectoparasitic burden of lice infestation in chickens from Maiduguri and its’ environments examined between April, 2018 and June, 2019 was 17.5% (90 infected) while 82.5% (425) were non-infected. In order of abundance, it was found that Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Lipeurus caponis, Goniodes gigas and Goniocotes gallinae, were the most commonly infestating lice of poultry in the study area. Female chickens were more infested 66 (22.2%) than their male counterparts 24 (11.0%) (P < 0.05). Adult chickens were more infested 82 (27.3%) than the younger ones 8 (3.7%) (P < 0.005). Exotic chickens were more exposed to lice infestation 66 (21.3%) than local chickens 24 (11.7%) (P < 0.05). Additionally, intensive managed chickens were more infested 69 (18.0%) than extensive managed chickens 21 (15.9%) (P > 0.05). The thigh and breast muscle predominate by habouring 51 (98.1%) of the biting lice, the vent recorded 23 (95.8%); while 14 (93.3%) was found under the wings.
    Conclusion: It is highly imperative to investigate the presence of some hemoparasites associated with these lice species found on chickens in the study area in order to come-up with a comprehensive control and management of lousiness and lice associated parasites on chickens in the area.
    Original Research
    Mesfin Aklilu*, Wegayehu Tadele, Endalkachew Birhanu, Abebe Getachew, Ebsa File, Alemnesh Hailemariam, Gebyaw Mola, Bethleheim Mebratu, Garoma Getahun, Gutu Kitila, Sintayehu Abdela, and Yimer Mulugeta
    Rabies is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. A five year data (2015 -2019) is used for the study. Animal rabies examination recording log book and laboratory result registration log book is applied to collect data. Out of 2,670 dogs subjected to quarantine at home, 2,608 (97.7%) were free of rabies whereas 31 (2.3%) were died and proven positive by a laboratory test (FAT). All 35 cats quarantined at home were free of rabies. Similarly, among 278 dogs and 8 cats quarantined in the EPHI facility throughout the study period, 91(32.7%) dogs and 4 (50%) cats died and tested positive by a laboratory test respectively. Out of 1464 canine, 85 feline, 49 bovine 12 equine 10 shoots, and 41 wild life samples brought to the EPHI rabies referral laboratory during the five years period, 1019 ( 69.6% ) dogs, 39 (45.9%) cats, 25 (51% ) bovines, 10 ( 83.3%) equines, 5 (50%) shoots, and 24 (58.5% ) wildlife brain samples tested positive respectively. The standard laboratory diagnostic method adopted by the laboratory was FAT (Table 1). Out of 2917 dogs and 43 cats, clinically diagnosed in the Ethiopian public health institute, 2670 (91.5%) dogs and 40 (93%) cats were owned while 247 (8.5%) dogs and 3(7%) cats were stray respectively. As far as vaccination status is concerned, 731 (25%) dogs were vaccinated. Regarding cats, none of vaccination data is recorded in the Ethiopian public health institute.
    Review Article
    Abayneh Alemu*
    Parasites are one of devastating diseases in poultry farms. This subsequently leads to economic crises. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum in 202 local and exotic chickens raised under intensive management system originated from Debrezeit Agricultural Research Center poultry farm from November 2008 to April 2009. The parasitological diagnosis procedures were conducted to detect the parasites. The study indicated that 42(20.79%) and 15(7.42%) of the examined chickens were harboring Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the prevalence of Ascaridia galli between breed and age groups of chickens. However, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of between two sexes of chicken. The present study shown that local and exotic chicken was kept under intensive management system in DebreZeit Agricultural Research Center poultry farm were exposed to infection with Ascaridia galli and Htereakis gallinarum. This is alarming condition for the farm. To prevent and minimize these parasites in farm level, hygienic measurements are strictly practiced to keep farm and consumer safety.
    Research Article
    Bedaso Kebede*, Moti Wakgari, Getachew Tuli, Gutu Kitila, Fekadu Bekele, Dagne Guta, Dinkinash Jaleta, Yimer Mulugeta, Mammedamin Isa, Tsegaye W/Silasse, Garoma Ggetahun, Alemnesh Hailemariam, Mesfin Aklilu
    Ectoparasites diseases are ubiquitously occurring in the world that significantly affect animal health, welfare, and hide quality including Ethiopia. This study was aimed to determine pre and post intervention prevalence of ectoparasites in small ruminant to indirectly evaluate effectiveness of diazinone in the control of ectoparasites under field condition.
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess pre and post control prevalence of ectoparasites from April 2019 to June 2019. The sample size (n=475) of small ruminants was determined using Thrusfield formula that consists of 381 sheep and 94 goats. Sampling was randomly performed on the sheep and goats found in the selected Peasant Associations which are grazing in communal pastures prior to control intervention. Pre intervention ecto-parasite prevalence in sheep and goat were 100% of infestations. The most abundant species were tick and tick& louse identified with an overall prevalence of 32.21 and 15.16 among single and two ecto-parasite infestations respectively. Ecto-parasite infestations with one, two and three species were 68.4, 30.97 and .63 prevalence respectively. Post intervention ecto-parasite infestation overall prevalence showed that 87.37 were cleared but 12.63% were not cleared.
    A paired t-test analysis has shown mean pre control (1.7 ± 1.6) at 95% CI ranges from 1.556679 to 1.849637) and post- control (0.2105263 ±0.6346988) at 95%CI ranges from 0.1533022 to 0.2677505 (p-value ≤ 0.0000) which is highly significant. Chi -square test of post control status for effectiveness of diazinone with associated risk factors demonstrated a significant difference among the types of ectoparasites (X2 =248.9033, p=0.000) .It was also observed that susceptibility of ectoparasites by type to the effect of diazinone in the order of flea > louse > tick. Diazinone is effective in the control of ectoparasites that significantly reduced the prevalence of ectoparasites in shoats. This was witnessed by 87.37% clearance of all types of ectoparasites from the study subjects. Community awareness creations and further study should be suggested as recommendations.
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