Technological Characterization of Hulless Barley (Hordium vulgare) Whole Grain Flour for Chapatti Making: Thermo- Mechanical, Physicochemical, Starch Digestibility and Retrogradation Traits - Abstract
The study was aimed at investigating the technological performance of hulless barley whole grain flours for chapatti making in terms of thermo-mechanical characteristics, chapatti quality, and starch digestibility and retrogradation behavior. Vital gluten (7%) was added to improve the viscoelastic behavior of dough. The considerable influence of nonstarchy polysaccharides in enhancing dough consistency after mixing (C1) and heating (C3, peak viscosity) is evident based on the results. Protein weakening and starch breakdown reduced significantly in barley chapattis in contrast to wheat chapatti. Water absorption, shrinkage and bake loss of chapatti increased as a function of non starchy polysaccharides. Whole barley flours demonstrated higher retrogradation as evident from the soluble starch and starch crystallinity analysis. Whole barley flour chapattis showed 76.74% more resistant starch and 20.48% more slowly digestible starch than wheat chapatti. Lower glycemic index (up to 62.04) was observed for whole barley flour chapattis demonstrating their potential benefit for diabetic patients. Thus, barley flour with added vital gluten may be effectively utilized in other bakery products to provide a slower digestibility.