Annals of Aquaculture and Research

Fish Fauna Diversity and Conservation Status of Pulicat Lagoon in Tamil Nadu

Research Article | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Zoology, University of Madras, India
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Ramanibai Ravichandran, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Unit of Aquatic biodiversity, Guindy Campus, Chennai-25

Fish fauna is considered as a good indicator of water quality. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of environmental factors on the fish distribution and conservation status in Pulicat Lagoon. Bimonthly surveys were conducted from September 2013 to August 2015 in which 83 fish species were recovered, belonging to 14 orders and 50 families. The dominant order was Perciformes which were represented by 44 species. Various physico-chemical parameters and nutrients were found to be suitable for growth of plankton and stocking of fish species. Hence, the present study there are only few fish species were near threatened and endangered of in the Pulicat therefore serious conservation action and renovation is required to prevent the loss of biodiversity.


Govindan S, Ravichandran R (2016) Fish Fauna Diversity and Conservation Status of Pulicat Lagoon in Tamil Nadu. Ann Aquac Res 3(2): 1018.


•    Pulicat lagoon
•    Physico- chemical properties
•    Biodiversity


Fishes are an important vertebrate group of the animal world and contribute overwhelmingly to global biodiversity. Fishes are used as a food source and contain many vital vitamins and fatty acids. The study of fish and their stability is important because fish populations very significantly from year to year. They play an important role, as they are not only useful for food and recreation, but also act as a tool for biological control by feeding upon the planktonic population and aquatic vegetation [1]. Worldwide 27,977 valid species of fishes under 62 orders, 515 families and 1,494 genera [2]. Indian species represent about 8.9 % of the known fish species in the world. Venkatraman [3] estimated 4,000 species of fish belonging to 969 genera, 254 families and 40 orders in the Indian region. The coastal region is a place of hectic human activity owing to urbanization and industrialization resulting in human interference of rapid development. In recent years, the coastal ecosystems have become highly disturbed and very much threatened and attributed to problems like pollution, siltation, erosion, flooding, salt water intrusion and storm surges [4]. Pulicat Lagoon, which is located in the North Chennai coastal region, is a typical brackish water ecosystem of great importance with regard to its biodiversity and aesthetic value. Due to its morphological and brackish water characteristics, it is the most suitable breeding and nursing ground habitat for fishes in the North Chennai coastal region. It runs parallel to the coast of the Bay of Bengal, being separated from it by an extensive sand-strip called the Sriharikota Island, on which the Sriharikota High Altitude Range (SHAR) of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is located [5]. Water is the natural habitat of fishes and other aquatic animals, it is therefore of great importance to study water quality while studying fish production especially when done in an artificial setting [6]. In particular, fish populations are highly dependent upon the variations of physicochemical characteristics of their aquatic habitat which supports their biological functions [7]. The present study was conducted to determine the physico-chemical parameters of water, icthyofaunal diversity and conservation status of Pulicat Lagoon.


Study area

The fishes were collected from the Pulicat Lagoon during the period of Sept 2013 - Aug 2015 from the following locations Barmouth (S1), Kunankuppam (S2), Light house kuppm (S3) Sattankuppam (S4) and Jameelabad (S5).

Collection and analysis

The water quality parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen etc., must be watched commonly, individually or synergistically to keep the aquatic habitat positive for existence of fish. Water samples were collected early in the morning in sterilized sampling bottles and physico-chemical parameters like pH, (Figure 1), temperatures were analysed at site. Dissolved oxygen (DO), phosphate were analyzed in accordance with American Public Health Association [8].

Fish samples were collected from different stations during the study period from September 2013 to August 2015 with the help of local fishermen using different types of nets namely gill nets, cast nets and dragnets [9]. Fish specimen were collected and preserved in 10% formaldehyde solution. Fishes were keyed and identified using Day [10-11].


Eighty three species, 14 orders and 50 families were found during our survey. The Perciformes were dominant with 44 species, followed by Tetraodontiformes with 9 species, Pleuronectiformes with 7 species, Clupeiformes, Siluriformes Mugiliformes with 3 species each, Beloniformes with 5 species, Anguilliformes and Scorpaeniformes with 2 species each, Carcharhiniformes, Gonorynchiformes, Myliobatiformes, Torpediniformes and Syngnathiformes 1 species each (Figure 2) (Table 1). Regarding their conservation status 22 species were least concern, 2 species were data deficient, one species for vulnerable (Epinephelus lanceolatus), Endangered (Thunnus thynnus), Near Threatened (Gymnura poecilura) and 57 species were not assessed (IUCN-Version 2015) (Table 1).

Perciformes were the dominant order that were recovered from our surveys, a trend that is similar across various independent studies. Nath and Patra [12] reported 25 Perciformes species from Hooghly river of West Bengal India. Abu Hanif [13] investigated 35 Perciformes species from Southern coastal waters of Bangladesh and 27 Perciformes species of Nizampatnam coastal Andhra Pradesh [14]. Thirteen species were recorded from Cuddalore, located at the southeast coast of India by Asta Lakshmi [15]. Similarly, in the present study, 44 species were the dominant order (Table 1).

Temperature is an important factor for the growth of biodiversity and influences the biological, biochemical, chemical characteristics of aquatic systems [16]. In the present study, temperature minimum as 24.6°C and maximum was 32.2°C at study area (Figure 3). It varied as expected with seasonal climates and showed a great variation season wise. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report [17], the increase of temperature directly or indirectly impacts species distribution and the seasonality of production in fishes. Temperature is commonly considered the most important single ecological factor in the coastal and estuarine ecosystem which can influence the distribution of marine organisms [18].

pH was recorded slightly alkaline in Pulicat Lagoon were lowest 7.6 and highest 9 (Figure 4). According to the report of Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Centre (NRAC) by Fluctuations in pH values during different seasons of the year is attributed to factors like removal of carbondioxide by photosynthesis through bicarbonate poverty, dilution of sea water by fresh water influx, reduce of temperature and decomposition of organic matter as suggested by Zingde et al., [19]. In the present investigation pH an attention indicates the alkaline nature of water in the study area. Dissolve oxygen observed were minimum 0.6 mg/l and maximum 4.9 mg/l (Figure 5). Solubility of oxygen in water is inversely proportional to temperature [20]. The low dissolved oxygen concentration observed during summer may be attributed to the higher salinity of the water, higher temperature and less inflow of freshwater coupled with biological processes such as consumption of available oxygen by the organisms for respiration and active decomposition of organic matter during summer. It is well known that the temperature affect the dissolution of oxygen [21].

Additional the bulk of weathering of rocks and soluble alkali metal phosphates in the upstream area are approved into the estuaries [22]. The addition of super phosphates applied in the agricultural fields as fertilizers and alkyl phosphates used in households as detergents can be other sources of inorganic phosphate throughout the monsoon season [23]. The variation may also be due to the processes like adsorption and desorption of phosphates and buffering action of sediment under varying environmental conditions [24]. In the present study, the phosphate lowest was 3.29 mg/ml during at summer and highest 5.44 was observed in monsoon (Figure 6).


Pulicat Lagoon indicated that an altered environment supported less biological communities while less anxious sites were characterized by a diverse fish faunal diversity. We found 83 species of 14 various orders; Perciformes represents the order maximum species recorded in study area. The water quality was also affected by pollutants which act on elements existing in water such as DO or produces substances such as phosphates, other elements and therefore affects the fish fauna indirectly. It is significant to take effective strategies for the maintenance of fish fauna of Pulicat lagoon in order to protract biodiversity and the balance of this aquatic ecosystem.


The authors are thankful to DST (SERB), for providing financial assistance Ref: No SR/SO/AS-12/2012.


1. Rawal R, Deshmukh PS. Biodiversity of Fish Fauna In Lakhapura Reservoir, Bhikangaon Tehsil, Khargone District, M.P. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies. 2016; 3: 75-77.

2. Nelson JS. Fishes of the World. Forth Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2006; 1-601.

3. Venkatraman K. Proceedings of Taal 2007P: the 12th World Lake Conference. 2008; 392-400.

4. Ramesh R, Nammalwar P, Gowri VS. Database of coastal information of Tamil Nadu. Report submitted to environmental information system (ENVIS) Centre Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2008; 1-133.

5. Sanjeeva Raj PJ. Strategies for conserving the macro fauna of Pulicat Lake - A case study. Natural aquatic ecosystems of India, thematic biodiversity strategy and action plan, The national biodiversity action plan, India. 2003; 228-238.

6. Agbaire, Odafevejiri P, Akporido, Omorovie, S Onos EO. Determination of some physicochemical parameters of water from artificial concrete fish ponds in abraka and its environs, Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2015; 70-76.

7. Mushahida-Al-Noor1 S, Kamruzzaman SK. Spatial and temporal variations in physical and chemical parameters in water of Rupsha River and relationship with edaphic factors in Khulna South Western Bangladesh. International Journal of Science and Research. 2013; 460- 467.

8. American Public Health Association. Standard methods for examination of Water and wastewater, 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington D.C. 1985.

9. Talwar PK, Jhingran AG. Inland fisheries of India and adjacent countries. Oxford and IBH Publ. Com. New Delhi. 1991; 1-2.

10. Day F. The fishes of India, being a natural history of the fishes known to inhabit the seas and freshwaters of India, Burma and Ceylon, Quaritch, London. 1878.

11. Day F. The fishes in India: Being a natural history of the fishes known to inhabit the seas and freshwater of India, Burma, Ceylon. Jegmander Book Agency, New Delhi. 1994; 1: 778.

12. Nath AK, Patra A. Survey on the present status of fish species diversity in a stretch of Hooghly River of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2015; 3: 244-250.

13. Abu Hanif MD, BakarSiddik MA, Reaz Chaklader MD, Nahar A, Mahmud S. Fish diversity in the southern coastal waters of Bangladesh: present status, threats and conservation perspectives. Croatian Journal of Fisheries. 2015; 73: 148-161.

14. Prabhavathi K, Krishna PV, Panchakshari V, Swapna CH. Fish resources in Nizampatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2015; 3: 999-1004.

15. Asta Lakshmi S, Sundaramanickam A. Biodiversity of reef ichthyofauna in Cuddalore Coast, Southeast Coast of India. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2011; 1: 1- 2.

16. Khanna DR, Ishaq F. Impact of water quality attributes and comparative study of icthyofaunal diversity of Asan lake and River Asan. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2013; 5: 200-206.

17. FAO. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2010; 115-116.

18. Kinne O. Physiology of estuarine organisms with special reference to salinity and temperature: general Teske and Wooldridge: Affinities of estuarine macroinvertebrates to salinity and sediment type 191 aspects. In: Estuaries, (ed.) G.H. Lauff. 1967; 525-540.

19. Zingde MD, Abidi SAH, Sarma P, Rokade MA. Base water quality off Thailand. Contributions in marine sciences. Qasim SZ, 16th birthday felicitation volume. 1987; 307-318

20. Carpenter JH. The oxygen content of air-saturated fresh waters over ranges of temperature and atmospheric pressure of limnological interest. Limnology and Oceanography. 1966; 11: 264-277.

21. Vijayakumar S, Rajan KM, Mridula Mendon R, Hariharan. Seasonal distribution and behavior of nutrients with reference to tidal rhythm in the Mulki estuary, Southwest coast of India. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India. 2000; 42: 21-23.

22. Govindasamy C, Kannan L, Azariah J. Seasonal variation in physicochemical properties of primary production in the coastal water biotopes of coromandel coast Indian. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2000; 21: 1-7.

23. Bragadeeswaran S, Rajasegar M, Srinivasan M, Rajan UK. Sediment texture and nutrients of Arasalar estuary, Karaikkal, south-east coast of India. J Environ Biol. 2007; 28: 237-240.

24. Rajasegar M. Environmental inventory on Vellar estuary (Southeast coast of India) in relation to shrimp farming. Thesis, Annamalai University, India.1998; 110.

Received : 06 Aug 2016
Accepted : 31 Aug 2016
Published : 02 Sep 2016
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X