Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology

Abdominal Ultrasound Findings Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Endemic Areas

Short Communication | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Italy
  • 2. Department of Veterinary Medical Science, University of Bologna, Italy 3 Practitioner, Italy
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Corresponding Authors
Paola Paradies, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Italy, Tel: 390-804-679-847

The aim of the study is to describe the ultrasound (US) findings associated to canine leishmaniasis (CVL) in dogs from an endemic area.

Thirty-four dogs naturally infected by Leishmania Infantum were enrolled. Morphologic changes of abdominal parenchymatous organs, including size, change in echogenicity and echo-texture and the presence of focal or diffused lesions were recorded. When possible the return to normal of US changes after treatment were monitored, in order to further confirm the association with the disease.

The most common pathological findings were: spleen from mild to severely enlarged, hyperechogenicity of renal cortex and hepatomegaly. Interesting findings were: the honey-comb splenic parenchymal pattern (2 dogs), the cirrhotic/fibrotic aspect of the liver (2 dogs) and the abdominal lymphadenopathy in absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy (2 dogs). Focal macro nodular lesions in spleen and liver, as described in some human cases, were not registered.

Results of this study suggest the ultrasonography could contribute to define the systemic involvement of dogs with leishmaniasis and to monitor the response to treatment. Canine leishmnaiasis need to be included in the differential diagnosis of the US honey-comb appearance of the spleen.


Paradies P, Cipone M, Mele I, Greco B, Romano D, et al. (2018) Abdominal Ultrasound Findings Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Endemic Areas. Ann Clin Cytol Pathol 4(1): 1093.


•    Canine leishmaniasis; Diagnosis; Endemic area; 
Follow-up; Ultrasonography 


Canine leishmaniasis (CVL) by Leishmania infantum is a vector borne protozoal disease widely distributed in many Mediterranean countries. In endemic areas a high percentage of clinically healthy infected dogs have been registered [1,2] serving as reservoirs for the transmission of Leishmania spp. to receptive animals and humans. The diagnosis of CVL in pauci-symptomatic animals may be troublesome because of the vague and nonspecific clinical signs and the complexity of interpretation of specific tests.

In human medicine the abdominal ultrasound (US) findings associated with visceral leishmaniasis has been reported [3- 5]. Moreover, single or multiple macronodular focal lesions in liver and spleen have been described in single case reports [6-8]. Differently, few are actually available on abdominal ultrasonographic findings registered in CVL. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the US abdominal findings associated with CVL and, when possible, to monitor the reverse to normal of US abnormalities after specific treatment. Furthermore, the correlation between the US pathological changes with an assigned clinical score and with selected laboratory tests has been investigated.


Study design

Dogs of different age, sex and breed with a diagnosis of L. infantum infection achieved by amastigotes detection on lymphnodal smears at microscopy and positivity to IFAT test were selected for the study. All the dogs came from and lived in the same region (Apulia, Italy). A clinical examination was performed on each dog and blood and urine samples were collected for routine laboratory exams at presentation (HCT%, Urea, Creatinine, Albumine, Total Proteins, Albumin/Globulin ratio, urinalysis). Animals with evidence of concomitant diseases were excluded. In particular a negative test for other vector borne diseases (SNAP rapid ELISA Kit multi tests, Idexx, Belgium) was required as inclusion criteria. Animal data (breed, sex, age, and weight), presenting complaint and history were recorded on an individual form. The animals were kept under their usual housing conditions before, during and after the study. The owner gave written consent for his/her animal(s) to participate in the study. Each dog was assigned to a clinical set based on the following criteria: A= absence of clinical signs suggestive of leishmaniasis; B= vague and nonspecific clinical signs, fairly suggestive of leishmaniasis; C= clinical signs highly suggestive of leishmaniasis.

Dogs were treated with a standardised treatment protocol for CVL: meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime, Merial) 50mg/kg/bid subcutaneously for 28 days and allopurinol 10 mg/kg/bid per so for 6 months or allopurinol in monotherapy for 6 months in case of severe disease with evidence of organ impairment [9,10]. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed at the beginning of the study in all dogs (T0= diagnosis). In dogs that showed US pathological signs, the US abdominal examination was repeated at the end of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (T1) or after allopurinol discontinuation (T2).

Microscopic diagnosis

Popliteal lymphnode tissues were sampled using a nonaspiration technique [11]. Smears were prepared and stained using May-Grunwald-Giemsa and examined under light microscope. The cytological examination was considered positive if Leishmania spp. amastigotes (1.5 - 2.0 x 2.5 - 5 µm) were revealed (Figure 1). In some dogs other tissues samples (spleen, liver, abdominal fluid) were also collected using an US guided fine needle aspiration technique and microscopically examined.


An Esaote Mylab 30 Gold ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus (Medmark-Esaote, Italia) equipped with a curvilinear 5-8 MHz and an 8-12 MHz linear transducer was used for abdominal examinations. A conventional B mode US study of parenchymatous organs was performed. Morphologic changes of parenchymatous organs, including changes in organ size and shape, echogenicity and/or echostructure were recorded. US criteria were used to define US pathological changes as reported in Nyland and Mattoon [12]. In particular, splenomegaly was defined on the basis of rounded edges and contact with a normal distended bladder; hepatomegaly was assessed on the basis of the displacement of the caudal edge of the liver, on their rounding and on displacement of the pylorus. The echogenicity was evaluated as baseline echogenicity relative to the surrounding parenchyma and echostructure was described as homogeneous or heterogeneous and evaluated for the presence of widespread parenchymal changes (diffuse disorders). The presence of single or multiple focal macro nodular lesions was investigated in liver and spleen and registered separately. Further more, mesenteric and medial iliac lymphnodes were evaluated and lymphadenopathy was assessed using previously reported parameters (short/long axis ratio >0.5, thickness >8mm, altered echopattern) [13,14]. Other pathological findings revealed at the abdominal US exam were also registered.

Statistical analysis

For statistical analysis a score was assigned to single US pathological findings ranging from -1 to 1 for liver size and liver and spleen echogenicity (-1= reduced, 0= normal, 1= increased); from 0 to 2 for spleen size (0 =normal, 1 = moderate increased volume, 2= severe increased volume), and from 0 to 1 (0= absence, 1= presence) for the following alterations: increased echogenicity of renal cortex, abdominal lymphadenopathy, diffuse altered echostructure in spleen and liver.

Data (clinical set, US score in single organs and laboratory results) were submitted to Pearson’s correlation indices analysis. Data showing high correlation indices were analyzed with simple linear regression analysis. A value of P <0.05 was considered significant.


Thirty four dogs were included in the study. They were 15 males and 19 females aged between 2 to 10 years. All of them underwent abdominal US examination at diagnosis. US followup post treatment was available in 11 dogs. Table 1 shows the dogs data, presenting complaint, clinical signs and score. The most common US abdominal pathological findings were: spleen from mild to severely enlarged (24 dogs), mostly associated with a hypoechoic or coarse hypoechoic parenchymal pattern; bilateral increased echogenicity of the renal cortex (14 dogs), hepatomegaly (7 dogs) and abdominal lymphadenopathy (Table 2). The spleen showed a honey-comb pattern in two dogs (Figure 2) and a heterogeneous structure with multiple iso/hyperechoic focal lesions in one. A small liver with irregular margins suggestive of a chronic process was revealed in two other dogs. In one of this dog the presence free fluid in abdomen was revealed. Overall, liver echogenicity appeared increased in 5 dogs (including that with cirrhosis) and decreased in 2. Focal macronodular lesions were not detected in spleen or liver of any dogs.

The kidneys showed regular margins except for two dogs in which one of the kidneys was characterized by irregular margins. Fourteen animals showed an increased echogenicity of the renal cortex and 3 dogs showed also a reduction of the cortico-medullary definition.

In five dogs the jejunal and iliac lymphnodes appeared increased in volume and showed inhomogeneous echogenicity.

Signs suggestive of acute pancreatitis were reported in one case only (i.e. pancreas enlarged, hypoechoic and slightly heterogeneous, surrounded by peripancreatic hyperecogenicity) and a thickened and edematous stomach wall in another (Table 2). Alterations in the reproductive system (i.e. prostatic hypertrophy) were detected in 6 dogs.

Results of the statistical correlation showed that among the US pathological findings the only parameter correlated with clinical score (r = -0.34668, P = 0.0446) and HCT (r = 0.37510, P = 0.0344) was the spleen echogenicity (Figure 3). No statistically significant correlations have been observed between renal US alterations and clinical-pathological data on renal function (Urea, Crea, Albumin, and HCT).

The US follow-up post treatment was available in 11 dogs (Table 3). In particular 4 dogs were monitored at T1, the others at T2. Table 4 shows post treatment follow-up results. A resolution of US changes in spleen, liver and lymphnodes was recorded in most of the dogs. In particular, the honeycomb aspect of the spleen quickly disappeared at T1 and enlarged organs reverse to normal size at T2. At T2 other abnormal findings, previously absent, were observed in 4 dogs including kidney and bladder stones, enlargement of the adrenal glands and mild abdominal effusion.

The study was conducted in an endemic area for CVL. Most of the dogs enrolled in this study showed vague and non-specific clinical signs (Table 1) or atypical signs (lameness, diarrhea) far from the most commonly reported signs of leishmaniasis (i.e. exfoliative dermatitis, onychogryphosis, periocular alopecia, peripheral lymphadenomegaly). Other dogs were presented for routine visit or were presented with signs referable to single apparatus with no evidence of systemic involvement at clinical examination. The 64.7% of dogs in this study was included in set 0 and 1. In this context, the US findings could play an important role. In fact, they can provide new paraclinical data that, if associated to traditional exams, could represent a useful support to address the diagnosis and to define the systemic involvement in dogs with CVL. However, the absence of US signs does not exclude the diagnosis, as shown in 20, 6% of the cases.

Results of this study showed that the most common US findings were: splenomegaly often associated with decreased echogenicity and/or inhomogeneous texture, hepatomegaly and increased echogenicity of the renal cortex. The honeycomb aspect of the spleen, the cirrhotic aspect of the liver and the abdominal lymphadenopathy (in absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy) were less common, but notable findings.

Focal macro nodular lesions in spleen and liver, as described in humans, were not registered in this study, but they could not be ruled out and a larger population needs to be examined. These findings aroused interest in human medicine because their appearance could easily resemble neoplastic lesions [6- 8]. Canalias and collaborators [6] observed the presence of solid lesions with peripheral hyperechoic halo (3 and 1.5 cm of diameter) in the right lobe of the liver in an HIV positive patient. Similar macronodular lesions were observed in the liver of another patient [7], the bigger measuring 5 cm and having a necrotic center. Similarly Raeymaeckers and collaborators [8] observed an enlarged spleen with multiple hyperechoic nodules in another patient with leishmaniasis.

Statistical analysis comparing US findings with clinical set and laboratory data show that significant correlations were found only with splenic echogenicity. In particular, spleen echogenicity was negatively correlated with the clinical score and positively correlated with HCT (%), thus indicating that a reduction in the spleen echogenicity could early reflects the systemic involvement in course of CVL. The difficulty in categorizing the clinical status of Leishmania infected dogs is one of the major hurdles that practitioners encounter when deciding how to manage and treat affected dogs [15], thus abdominal US could contribute to better define the complex clinical picture of dogs with leishmaniasis. This is particularly important in endemic areas for the high presence of pauci-symptomatic infections. Results from US abdominal examination after treatment show that all dogs, except for one (dog 25) had the resolution of US abnormalities (Table 3), thus supporting their association with the disease but also suggesting that US monitoring could contribute to monitor the response to treatment.

Worth of note is the ultrasonographic honeycomb appearance of the spleen, characterized by multiple small hypoechoic nodules, that is suggestive of lymphoma or lymph sarcoma [16] or pyogranulomatous splenitis in dogs [16]. It was never been previously associated specifically with CVL. In this study the microscopic examination of multiple spleen fine needle aspirates revealed the presence of amastigotes of Leishmania spp. and the resolution of US changes after specific treatment confirmed the association with the infection (or reaction to the infection). In human medicine, Saxena and colleagues [17] observed a similar sonographic appearance of the spleen in a 7-year-old girl with leishmaniasis.

Kidney disease is often the only clinical abnormality in dogs with leishmaniasis and can evolve into asymptomatic proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome or chronic renal failure with glomerulonephritis, tubulo-interstitial nephritis and amyloidosis [18]. In our study, we found a high frequency of cortical increased echogenicity (41.2%).

Although dogs with CVL usually do not show clinical evidence of liver disease, the liver involvement has been already demonstrated as well as histopathological changes [19-22]. Inflammation and fibrosis of the liver are induced by CVL [20-23]; liver US changes probably reflect these histopathological changes. The cirrhotic-like evolution detected in two animals of this study could be the result of long-lasting infection as suggested also in humans [4]. In the dog with ascites Leishmania spp amastigotes were microscopically found both in the abdominal effusion and in the liver.

It is known that the 80% of symptomatic dogs with CVL has increased volume of peripheral lymphnodes [18]. Differently, poor information are reported in literature about the frequency of abdominal lymphadenopathy in dogs with CVL [24] and it is not known if the increase in volume of the peripheral lymphnodes is associated to abdominal lymphadenopathy. In two out of the five dogs showing abdominal lymphadenopathy, the peripheral lymphnodes resulted not enlarged. It is north worthy that in one of them, the microscopic diagnosis of Leishmania spp. infection was possible by sampling the enlarged abdominal lymph node under echo-guidance (dog 31).

Other US pathological findings were registered during this study in the urinary and reproductive system but it is possible that they were expression of concomitant diseases. However, systemic CVL can affect any organ including those of the reproductive system [25]. US signs of acute pancreatitis have been reported in humans in association with leishmaniasis [4].

In follow-up post treatment spleen, liver and lymph nodal US pathological signs resolved but some other findings (not revealed before therapy) were registered. Uroliths and renal mineralization may be due to the formation of xanthine uroliths resulting from xanthinuria, a condition observed in dogs undergoing prolonged treatment with allopurinol [26,27].

Table 1: Signalament and assigned clinical score of the dogs included in the study.

Dog Breed, sex, age, weight Owner complaint Most striking clinical signs Clinical Set (0-1-2)
1. Mongrel F10y, 26 kg Sneezing + nasal discharge Sero-haemorragicnasal discharge, dermatitis, 1
2. Mongrel F5y 16 kg Abdomen enlargement Splenomegaly, hyperkeratosis of nose 1
3. Pitt-bull M8y 31.5 kg Preputial haemorragic discharge Pawsulceration, lymphadenomegaly 1
4. Border collie F6y 14.3 kg Routine visit Pallor of mucous membranae 0
5. Boxer FS7y 29.6 kg Annual monitoring visit for CVL recurrence* n.n. 0
6. Pitt-bull FS4y 22.7 kg Annual monitoring visit for CVL recurrence * Pallor of mucous membranae and mild lymphadenomegaly 1
7. Mongrel M adult 20 kg Preputial haemorragic discharge Pallor of mucous membrane 1
8. Great Dane F2.5y 39 kg Anorexia Mild lymphadenomegaly 1
9. Boxer MC8y 32.8 kg Routine visit BCS 4, lymphadenomegaly 1
10. Italian levriere FS 4y 6 kg Anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain Abdominalpain 0
11. Breton F Adult 16 kg Epistaxis Pallor of mucous membranae and lymphadenomegaly 2
12. Mongrel M adult 14.7 kg Exfoliative dermatitis Elbow ulcerations, ear pinnae dermatitis and crusts, lymphadenomegaly 2
13. Mongrel M adult 27.4 kg Weight loss and exfoliative dermatitis Pallor of mucous membranae, ulcers and depigmentation of nose, conjunctivitis 2
14. Mongrel M adult9.1 kg Generalized lameness and muscle hypotrophy Depression, exfoliative dermatitis, deforming arthritis, lymphadenomegaly 2
15. Mongrel M adult 15 kg Alopecia and weight loss Periocular alopecia, BCS 4 2
16. Mongrel M12y 33.4 kg Preputial hemorrhagic discharge Elbow ulcerations, abnormal finding at palpation (spleen) 1
17. Mongrel M 5y 36.9kg Depression Depression, lymphadenomegaly 1
18. Cavalier king FAdult 8.25kg Pruritus Pallor of mucousmembranae 1
19. Irish setter F 6y 15 kg dysuria n.n. 0
20. Pointer FS young 19.8 kg Lameness Onychogryphosis, arthritis, lymphadenomegaly 2
21. Mongrel F 2y, 27 kg Routine visit n.n. 0
22. Mongrel M adult 27 kg Abdominal enlargement Ascites, weight loss 0
23. Mongrel M 4y 12 kg Lameness Lymphadenomegaly, splenomegaly 2
24. Beagle F 10y 12.1 kg Anorexia n.n. 0
25. German shepherd F 9y 33.8 kg Pre-surgery visit Mammary nodules, head muscular atrophy 0
26. Dobermann M 10y 21 kg Chronic diarrhoea BCS 3, Lymphadenomegaly, periocular alopecia 2
27. Mongrel M 6y 22.7 kg Mild depression, dermatitis Eczematous dermatitis, lymphadenomegaly, 2
28. Rottweiler Fs 9.5y 35.3 kg Diarrhea, haematochezia, reduced food intake, lameness Abdominal pain, lameness, pallor of mucous membranae 1
29. MongrelFs 8y 23.3kg Epistaxis, ricorr enturinary infection Nasal ulcerated granuloma. 1
30. Mongrel F adult 15 kg Weight loss, dermatitis BCS 4, periocular alopecia, lymphadenomegaly, skin ulcers 2
31. English setter Fs 10y, 18 kg Mild depression, weakness Depression, muscular hypotrophy 1
32. Mongrel M 3y 16 kg Lameness, dermatitis Polyarthritis, ear pinnae hypothricosis 1
33. Mongrel F 6y, 12 kg Blindness Exfoliative dermatitis, uveitis, 2
34. Breton, m 7y, 16 kg Mild depression, lameness Junction swelling, lymphadenomegaly, splenomegaly 2
* = Monitoring of dogs with a history of leishmaniasis which stopped specific treatment at least from 6 months.
Abbreviations: n.n. = none; BCS = Body Condition Score; F = Female; M = Male; y = Year; m = Months

Table 2: Frequency and percentage of dogs according to US findings at time of CVL diagnosis.

  US findings Frequency Percentage
  None US payhologicalfindings 7/34 20.6%
Liver Liver enlargement (mild to moderate) 7/34 20.6%
Increased echogenicity 3/34* 8.8%
Decreased echogenicity 2/34 5.8%
Fibrotic/cirrhoticaspect 2/34 5.8%
Multiple mineralizations 1/34 2.9%
Focallesions 0/34 0%
Spleen Severe splenomegaly Moderate splenomegaly 8/34
Diffuse hypoechogenicity 9/34 26.5%
Honey-combaspect 2/34 5.8%
Inhomogeneous aspect 7/34** 20.6%
Focallesions 0/34 0%
Lymphnodes Lymphadenopathy 5/34 14.7%
Kidneys Increased echogenicity of renal cortex 14/34 41.17%
Reduced cortex-medullary differentiation 3/34 8.8%
Other Findings Signs of pancreatitis 1/34 2.9%
Gastric wall thickness 1/34 2.9%
Abdominaleffusion 1/34 2.9%
* Not including cirrhotic
** include: coarse pattern (6 dogs), presence of areas at different echogenicity (1 dog); not including spleen honey-comb appearance.

Table 3: Ultrasound monitoring after 1,5 or 6 months from the beginning of therapy in 14 dogs. The ultrasound findings at diagnosis and in follow up are reported.

ID Time Liver Spleen Kidneys Otherfindings
Dog n 16 T0 n Splenomegaly (++) Increased echogenicity of renal cortex n
T 2 n r.n. p.f. n
Dog n. 18 T0 Multiple mineralization Splenomegaly (++), multiple iso-hyperecogenic lesions n n
T 2 p.f r.n. n. Surrenal glands hypo and enlarged
Dog n. 23 T0 n. Splenomegaly (++) with honey-comb aspect n. n
T1 n. r.n. n. n
Dog n. 24 T0 n Splenomegaly (+) n Lymphadenopathy
T 2 n r.n n r.n
Dog n. 25 T0 Fibrotic vs cirrhotic aspect+ mucocele n Mineralization n
T 2 p.f. n p.f. Mild ascites
Dog n. 28 T0 Increased volume, inhomogeneous Splenomegaly (++), honey-comb aspe Increased echogenicity of cortex n
T 1 r.n. r.n. p.f. n
Dog n. 29 T0 Increased volume Splenomegaly (+), hypoechogenicity ncreased echogenicity, reduced cortico-medullary definition, mineralization n
T 2 r.n. r.n. p.f. Bladderurolithiasis
Dog n. 30 T0 Colecistitis.   n n
T 2 r.n. r.n. Renalmineralizations Bladdersediment
Dog n. 31 T0 Increased volume Splenomegaly (++) Increased echogenicity of cortex Lymphadenopathy
T 1 r.n. r.n. p.f. r.n.
Dog n. 32 T0 n Splenomegaly (+). Inhomogeneustexiture n n
T 2 n r.n n n
Dog n. 34 T0   Splenomegaly(++) n Lymphadenopathy
T 1   r..n N r.n
n= normal: no pathological ultrasound findings are revealed; r.n. = reverse to normal; p.f .= persisting US finding; in bracket is reported the severity of the pathological finding; T0= diagnosis; T 1= follow up at the end of treatment with melamine; T 2= follow up at discontinuation of allopurinol treatment (about 6 months from diagnosis).



Results of this study suggest the ultrasonography could contribute to define the systemic involvement of dogs with leishmaniasis and to monitor the response to treatment. Furthermore data suggest that CVL need to be included in the differential diagnosis of the US honey-comb appearance of the spleen, while further investigation are need to rule out the possibility of macro nodular focal lesions associated to CVL.


The authors thank Prof. Andrea Navach for the language revision of the Manuscript and Dott. Aristide Maggiolino for statistical support


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Received : 01 Feb 2018
Accepted : 27 Feb 2018
Published : 28 Feb 2018
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JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
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