Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology

Brain Tumor Detection Using Watershed Transform

Research Article | Open Access

  • 1. Department of Physics and Mathematics, Helwan University, Egypt
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Osama R. Shahin, Department of Physics and Mathematics, Helwan University, Egypt, Tel: 201-003-535-525

The eventual fate of image processing and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in analytic radiology is more encouraging now than any other time in recent memory, with encouraging reliable results being reported from expert’s radiologist. Computer aided design systems are utilized generally in a few therapeutic zones for enhancing earlier recognition and treatment stages. Brain tumor is a standout between the most well-known malignancies among peoples in the developing countries. It has turned into a major reason for a death. In this paper we propose an execution for a quick segmentation of a brain tumors utilizing watershed transforms. This expands the watershed transform for division by permitting the integration of from the earlier data about image objects and the watershed calculation. Prior to the watershed change can start, the algorithm need a method of representing the brain image in terms of the amount of change around each pixel. Tumors in the digital image processing can be recognized as circled or semicircle in shapes and the intensity of the tumor will be darker as we moved far from its center. As mentioned before, the most brilliance point in the tumor image will be concentrated in its center. The complement for the center point can be taken as a local minimum that required for starting the watershed calculation. So every tumor image can be represented as a lake with critical value located in the center of supplement tumor image. The tumor center points were considered as seed points that improved the rate of a segmentation process very well. In the wake of utilizing the strategy, the identification of tumor rate turns out to be more reliable.


Shahin OR (2018) Brain Tumor Detection Using Watershed Transform. Ann Clin Cytol Pathol 4(1): 1096.


•    Watershed transforms
•    Brain tumors
•    Feature extraction
•    Magnetic resonance imaging


MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging


Brain tumor is an ailment of unusual cells developing and increasing in an undisciplined way. It has turned out to be a standout amongst the most widely recognized and real reasons for the expansion in mortality among peoples on the world. Brain is bit of focal sensory system which is situated into the skull. It is delicate light mass of tissue that is ensured by bones of skull and three thin layers called meninges. Brain tumor is group of anomalous cells which in a roundabout way demolishes healthy cells of brain and causes aggravation, swelling inside the skull. Brain tumors can be classified into benign and malignant. These tumors can be found in various sizes and shapes, which differ from case to another case. Be that as it may, the impacts of both the sorts of tumor are generally same and can cause comparable issues relying upon their kind. Benign tumor is a non destructive sort of tumor which does not develop in adjacent tissues or spread to different parts [1]. While, malignant tumors are harmful tumor and are perilous since they spread to particular parts of body. The grade of tumor alludes to way, the cells look under a magnifying instrument.

Grade 1: Benign tissues, these tissues looks like typical tissues gradually offer ascent to these cells.

Grade 2: The cells are malignant these tissues look like ordinary tissues alike grade 1 tissue.

Grade 3: They are the malignant tissues which are not the same as should be normal cells. As they are anomalous cells so are quickly growing.

Grade 4: These are generally irregular cells and are quickly spread.

So that, the time was considered as a critical factor to stop the spread for such disease. The early detection is the way to enhance brain cancer diagnosis and treatment. The Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) displays the high delicate tissue outline contrasted with other therapeutic imaging modalities and it’s ordinarily used to break down an assortment of infections in brain and the image segmentation is significantly utilized as a part of human services framework for examination and findings of different sicknesses in different restorative applications. Detection and segmentation of brain tumor from multimodal brain MR image is a testing assignment because of different factors, for example, brain MR image produced from assorted scanners with various arrangements and besides the brain tumor shifts from power fluctuates to sound tissues and with their shape, size and area is particular to quiet. With the significant progress in the brain MRI techniques have uncovered the expansive potential outcomes of brain life systems examination in light of multimodal brain MRI. The MRI imaging is ordinarily utilized as a part of the different biomedical applications to analyze an assortment of diseases, to visualize the inward development of the brain and to identify tumor.

Watershed transformation is an effective strategy for therapeutic image segmentation in view of numerical morphology. Such strategy respects the topographic surface of an image. Watershed transformation considers three points composes: (a) those that have a place with a provincial least; (b) those at which water would fall with assurance to a solitary least; and (c) those at which water would probably tumble to more than one such least. Catchment basins are the aftereffect of focuses that fulfill condition (b) and those that fulfill condition (c) frame peak lines that partitions distinctive catchment basins, alluded to as watershed lines. Catchment basins are the parcels we expect to acquire. The quantity of objects that outcome from segmentation relies upon the quantity of neighborhood minima that exists in the image. Watershed segmentation is generally utilized with MRIs, CTs, and X-rays on the grounds that it is straightforward, instinctive technique, and produces finish image division into isolated areas, regardless of whether the contrast is poor. Thus, there is no compelling reason to play out any post-preparing work, like contour joining. Be that as it may, the deformity of watershed transformation is over-segmentation, which implies that the image is isolated into an excessive number of locales, or an excessive number of items have been fragmented. This by an excessive number of neighborhood minima in the image. Another confinement of watershed division is its affectability to commotion. In this way, filtering tasks have been utilized to remove noise and ancient rarities in MRI. Also, the idea of morphological recreation and marker extraction can be utilized to kill over-division that outcomes from the utilization of watershed transformation on a gradient image.

There are numerous classifications for highlight for the tumors in image preparing, however we will take the fundamental and the one that will help us in our approach. In this way, we try to find the features that translate medical words to qualitative things that can be calculated through computer algorithm which considered the main goal for this paper. The principle classifications of features are: Geometric, Texture and Gradient highlights (features) [2].


Tumor features

There are numerous classifications for highlight for the tumors in image preparing, however we will take the fundamental and the one that will help us in our approach. In this way, we try to find the feature that translates medical words to qualitative things that can be calculated through computer algorithm which considered the main goal for this paper. The principle classifications of features are: Geometric, Texture and Gradient features [2].

Geometric features: Geometric features portray the geometric properties of the Region of Interest (ROI). It is spoken to as a gathering of pixels in an image. In this way, for motivation behind recognition we have to depict the properties of pixels [2,3]. The geometric properties of the region are the fundamental regional descriptors that any object must distinguish by that highlights. In therapeutic analyze, geometric features are basic to perceive any object, regardless of brain. Along these lines, to design and recognize ROI from others we have to know its geometric features. The essential characters of geometric element are area, perimeter and compactness [4],

Texture features: Texture is really an extremely nebulous concept, frequently credited to human recognition, as either the appearance or the presence of the fabric. Everybody has his or her own particular translation to the idea of texture, so there is no numerical definition for texture. Basically, there is neither any exceptional meaning of texture, nor any one of a kind numerical model to combination texture. But there are numerous approaches to portray and extricate it. Unmistakably, image will for the most part contain tests of more than one texture. While no formal meaning of texture exists, naturally this depiction gives measures of properties, for example, smoothness, coarseness, and regularity. Texture features speak to an endeavor to describe gray level varieties between adjoining pixels in the image [5].

Gradient features: The gradient image is the subsidiary of the neighborhood image esteems. An edge in the original image would compare to a higher incentive in the gradient picture [6]. The sobel operator used to register the gradient image too. It has unmistakable focal points, in spite of the fact that it is somewhat more asymmetrical. It is less sensitive to disengaged high power point varieties since it normal focuses over a bigger territory. After we connected Sobel operation in all MRI and create the gradient pictures, we recalculate all texture highlights said above utilizing gradient picture. In other hand, we should as certained Gradient Normalized Histogram (GNH) from ROI histogram of the gradient picture at that point normalized the outcome. Along these lines, we utilize GNH vector and Gradient Image Vector in most gradient feature.


The suspicious area (ROI) can be simply detected in an image if the area has adequate contrast from the background. The proposed algorithm can be summarized as follows

Reading the MR image

The image will be read and directly transformed to a 3D matrix 100×100×3.

Obtain the gradient of the input image

Use the gradient magnitude as the essential segmentation function. In this stage the detection of the Brain cells is attained. The object to be segmented differs significantly in contrast from the background image. Changes in contrast can be identified by operators that determine the gradient of an image. There are different methods to calculate the gradient of an image such, Sobel, Canny, Prewitt, Roberts, etc. But, in this work the Sobel detector operator is used because it is easy to execute, and it doesn’t deliver an extensive noise. Then the Detection the frontal area will take place, using objects utilizing morphological systems called “opening-by-recreation” and “shutting by-reproduction” to “clean” up the image. These tasks will create level maxima inside each protest.

Calculate the regional minimum

By complement the image the calculation of the minimum value for any tumor which represents the center for each complete tumor image can be detected. The whole image of the tumor can be expressed as complete graph of lake catchment basins with a minimum value surrounded by two parallel dams (Figure 1).

Watershed segmentation

The idea of watersheds depends on envisioning a image in 3D: two spatial coordinates against dark levels [7,8]. In such a topographic understanding, we think about three sorts of focuses: a) points having a place toward regional minimum, b) point when water drops and c) point when water would probably fall. For a specific provincial least, the arrangement of focuses fulfilling condition (b) is called catchment basin or watershed of that base. A watershed locale or catchment bowl is characterized as the area over which all focuses stream “downhill” to a typical point. The focuses fulfilling condition (c) are named divide lines or watershed lines. The watershed transformation can be developed by flooding process on a dark tone picture and might be appeared as appeared in Figure 2. As watershed division method isolates any picture as various force parcels and furthermore the tumor cells have high proteinaceous liquid (fluid) which has high thickness and consequently high intensity, in this manner watershed division is the best tool to characterize tumors and high power tissues of brain.

Skull stripping

There are a severable methods accessible to perform skull stripping, the calculation utilized as a part of our proposed framework depends on an edge task and is portrayed in the accompanying advances:

a. Labeled Im = convert image that resulted from last phase into labeled image.

b. Find the region properties for Labeled Im.

c. Skull Reg = region that have maximum perimeter.

d. Skull Reg assigns 0 and other pixels assign 1

Calculate the features for segmented areas

In this stage, the assurance of the geometric, texture, and gradient features will be accomplished by utilizing the all around characterized conditions [4-6]. These features can be listed below in Table 1[9].

Extract the location of the tumor

As indicated by the region properties for each fragmented zones we decide the tumor location according to its features. The assurance of the tumor features was based on the features values mentioned in [10,11].


In order to display the advantages of the proposed technique it was implemented and applied on 180 genuine images. We utilized example pictures of 20 patients with 9 slices for every patient. These test images were gained utilizing a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Spectra MRI machine. The aggregate quantities of slices for all channels were 20, which prompts add up to 180 images at 9 slices for every patient. This dataset had ground truth images that contrasted the consequences of our technique and the manual examination of radiologists. As we have seen, a portion of the tissues are darkened by a brilliant locale in the focal point of the tumor image. This bright region makes the image be unevenly lit up. Since the tumor image background is dull and the image objects are for the most part lighter than the image background, we utilize the top-hat transform to decrease the uneven brightening. The top-hat transform is characterized as the distinction between the original image and its opening. The opening of the image is the gathering of frontal area parts of a picture that fit a specific organizing component. After the discovery of the suspicious area and concentrate it from the entire brain locale the highlights for these district will be figured, as said before 22 features will be calculated and will be spared in database which contains 188 lines, each line for one image and 22 records in light of the fact that in each image we register 22 feature extraction. After that the outlined element will be displayed in Table 1 contains the base and greatest value for each feature, to make the readings less demanding we adjusted the entire outcome for three decimal places.


From the comparison tests that for result appeared in Table 2. We see that all highlights acquired by the proposed calculation are coordinating with those features in the past works. Along these lines, the proposed calculation can recognize the locale of the tumors and decide its areas. Notwithstanding the last advantage, it could recognize more than one tumor in a similar brain region, which offers energy to the proposed calculation as appeared in Figure 2. As observed from the exploratory outcomes, the proposed highlights extraction demonstrates a decent outcome. In this manner, it has a capacity to execute brain tumor CAD system.


1. Joseph A. Regezi, James J. Sciubba, Richard C. K. Jordan. Oral pathology: clinical pathologic correlations. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2016; 1-496.

2. Liu Xiaoming, Jinshan Tang. Mass Classification in Mammograms Using Selected Geometry and Texture Features, and a New SVM-Based Feature Selection Method. IEEE Systems Journal. 2014; 8: 910-920.

3. Tustison NJ, Shrinidhi KL, Wintermark M, Durst CR, Kandel BM, Gee JC, et al. Optimal Symmetric Multimodal Templates and Concatenated Random Forests for Supervised Brain Tumor Segmentation (simplified) with ANTsR. Neuroinformatics. 2015; 13: 209-225.

4. Häberle L, Wagner F, Fasching PA, Jud SM, Heusinger K, Loehberg CR, et al. Characterizing mammographic images by using generic texture features. Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14: 59.

5. Bahadure NB, Ray AK, Thethi HP. Comparative Approach of MRI-Based Brain Tumor Segmentation and Classification Using Genetic Algorithm. J Digit Imaging. 2018.

6. Nabizadeh N, Miroslav K. Brain tumors detection and segmentation in MR images: Gabor wavelet vs. statistical features. Computers Electr Eng. 2015; 45: 286-301.

7. Kwon Goo Rak, Dibash Basukala, Sang Woong Lee, Kun Ho Lee, Moonsoo Kang. Brain image segmentation using a combination of expectation?maximization algorithm and watershed transform. Int J Imaging Syst Technol. 2016; 225-232.

8. Bhima K, Jagan A. An Improved Method for Automatic Segmentation and Accurate Detection of Brain Tumor in Multimodal MRI. Int J Image Grap Sig Pro. 2017; 9: 1-8.

9. Shahin O, Kelash H, Attiya G, Osama S. Farag Allah. Breast Cancer Detection Based on Dynamic Template Matching. Wulfenia J. 2013; 20: 193-205.

10. Erickson, Bradley J, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Zeynettin Akkus, Timothy L. Kline. Machine Learning for Medical Imaging. Radiographics. 2017; 37: 505-515.

11. Milletari Fausto, Seyed-Ahmad Ahmadi, Christine Kroll, Annika Plate, Verena Rozanski, Juliana Maiostre, et al. Hough-CNN: Deep learning for segmentation of deep brain regions in MRI and ultrasound. Comput Vis Image Underst. 2017; 164: 92-102.

Received : 15 Feb 2018
Accepted : 20 Mar 2018
Published : 23 Mar 2018
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X