Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology

Current Epidemiological Status of Bovine Theileriosis in Indian Scenario

Review Article | Open Access

  • 1. Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India
  • 2. Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, India
  • 3. Deparment of Geography, Bhagirathi Degree College, India
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Sachin Kumar, Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Uttar Pradesh, India, Tel: 91-9897029352

Tick-borne diseases of livestock are responsible for heavy economic losses globally. The protozoan parasite Theileria annulata is the causative agent of the tick-borne disease tropical theileriosis (also known as Mediterranean fever) which causes morbidity in indigenous cattle and severe lethal disease in imported high-grade cattle and crossbreds in a wide geographical area ranging from the Mediterranean littoral regions of Europe and Africa to the near and Middle East to India. Mediterranean fever is an important bovine haemo protozoan disease in an economic point of view and spreads over North Africa, Southern Europe, The Middle East and Asia. Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the India and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. Knowledge of the of these diseases is important for the design and implementation of control strategies Long term carrier animals which were all recovered from previous exposure to the organisms pose thread as source of infection in Hyalomma anatolicum. The prevalence rate of theileriosis is based on the geographical region and several other associated factors like tick density, climatic conditions, age, gender, management practices and immunity of the host. Theileria caused by Theileri aannulata is economically important vector borne haemo protozoan disease of livestock. Theileria is responsible for causing theileriosis resulting in death of affected animals. The disease is endemic in warmer regions, it is seasonal and the incidence is higher during summer and rainy season when the ticks have higher activity although sporadic outbreaks have been recorded year round. It is a potential killer of livestock and causes economic losses in terms of mortality, morbidity, abortion, infertility, reduced milk yield etc. The disease is underestimated in cattle due to sub clinical nature. The conventional parasitological techniques are less sensitive. More than 80 percent of infections are cryptic and undetectable by direct.This paper briefly discussed about the occurrence, control and the economic importance of Theileria spp in WesternHimalayan region of Uttar Pradesh.


Kumar S, Mohmad A, Parthasarathi BC, Fular A, Gupta S, et al. (2018) Current Epidemiological Status of Bovine Theileriosis in Indian Scenario . Ann Clin Cytol Pathol 4(1): 1090.


•    Epidemiology
•    livestock
•    Tropical theileriosis
•    PCR
•    Microscopy


Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) cause major economic losses, and affect many domestic animals, mainly cattle and sheep, in tropical and subtropical regions. Tropical theileriosis is a TBD caused by a protozoon called Theileria annulata transmitted by several tick species of the genus Hyalomma [1]. Theileriosis and babesiosis are the most important and dangerous blood protozoan diseases of the cattle; these are transmitted by ticks especially in countries which have intensive animal industries [2]. Tropical theileriosis is a frequent fatal disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata

The temperature of Uttar Pradesh region is favorable for ticks and responsible for the transmission of theileriosis in cattle. It is situated on the northern spout of India and shares an international boundary with Nepal. The Himalayas border the state on the north, but the plains that cover most of the state are distinctly different from those high mountains. Cattle are the important species in these areas because of dual purpose. They are reared for the supply of draught power for agriculture and for milk production.

This is because of the introduction of new cattle from the surrounding states where this disease is prevalent. Uttar Pradesh has a humid subtropical climate and experiences four seasons. The Gangetic plain varies from semiarid to sub-humid. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 650 mm in the southwest corner of the state to 1000 mm in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May and the monsoon season between June and September. Summers are extreme with temperatures fluctuating anywhere between 0°C and 50°C in parts of the state coupled with dry hot winds called the Loo.

The present paper attempts to present a scenario of theileriosis, their occurrence in Uttar Pradesh, reason of occurrence, effects and their preventive measures. So that dairy venture become more profitable and mortality rate in crossbred cattle due to theileriosis should be reduced.


The Theileria parasite was first reported by Arnald Theiler and Dschunkowsky first described the disease theileriosis in 1904.Theileriosisis caused by Theileria annulata and transmitted through the bites of Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus with higher incidence in the crossbred cow of all age groups with the general epidemiology of the disease in tropical areas [3]. This disease is seasonal, starts in the second part of April, and adds to its abundance increase in June and July. Cases of theileriosis are generally observed during summer or rainy season when the ticks have higher activity although sporadic outbreaks have been recorded year round [4]. Tropical theileriosis caused by T. annulata may result in 80% mortality in susceptible animals

Acute clinical cases of theileriosis were first recorded on 12 June, 1922 in hill bulls. In 1930 outbreak of clinical theileriosis were recorded in imported herds maintained at Lahore, Bangalore, Allahabad and Kirkee. Since then occasional outbreaks of theileriosis have been recorded mainly in cross bred and exotic cattle.

Treated cattle turn out to be long standing carriers, with only a few numbers of infested erythrocytes, thus posing difficulty in the demonstration of parasites in blood smear. In long standing carrier animals blood smears are negative on microscopy [5]. Carrier animals have an important role in the transmission of infection by the Hylomma ticks. Antibodies tend to disappear in long term carrier cattle despite the presence of piroplasms [6]. Transport of carrier cattle to non endemic areas can lead to disease outbreak. It is possible for cattle infected with these parasites to maintain carrier state for several years.

Piroplasms are very small <2.5m they are ovoid, annular, ring or rod shaped. found highest prevalence in monsoon months have estimated the cost of T.annulata in India to be US$ 384.3 million. A recent estimate of US$ 498.7 million per annum has been calculated as the cost of TTBD’s in India.


The life cycle of T. annulata (Figure 1) includes the following stages:

Sporozoite stage: When infected adult ticks attach to cattle, the sporozoites develop in the tick salivary gland and are injected with the tick saliva. The sporozoites invade the lymphoid cells and schizonts are detected in 10–13 days. This is the prepatent period of the disease.

Schizont stage: The schizonts parasitize lymphocytes, proliferate and invade and damage the lymphoid system and produce lesions in the skin, liver and spleen.

Piroplasm stage: The piroplasm parasitizes the erythrocytes and causes destruction of these cells with a decrease in the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level.

Symptoms: Clinically a rise of body temperature up to 107°F and enlarged superficial lymph nodes accompanied by dullness, anorexia, salivation, lacrimation, discharge from nostrils, tachycardia, and decreased milk production are the symptoms for theileria.


Microscopic examination: Theileria annulata infection in cattle is usually based on the detection of macroschizonts in Giemsa’s-stained lymph node biopsy smears in live animals and impression smears of lymph node and spleen in dead animals [5].

Serological examination: Serological tests such as the indirect immunoflourescent antibody test (IFAT) can be used to detect circulating antibodies [7]. However, cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against other Theileria species limits the specificity of the IFAT [6].

DNA based examination (PCR & LAMP)

PCR: Molecular diagnosis of haemoprotozoan diseases involves several PCR- based diagnosis procedures, which help in the identification of the parasites up to the species or even strain level [8-11]. With the availability of sequenced parasite genes and PCR, it is possible to detect parasites within samples of blood. PCR based technique uses small material which is very relevant because large amount of material is not possible from different stages of parasitic life cycle [12]. This technique reveals a high sensitivity compared to immunological examinations and serological testing. Furthermore, the advent of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has made it possible to increase the sensitivity of nuclear hybridization techniques, through amplification of target DNA sequences of the parasites in test material, by in situ synthesis of these sequences prior to hybridization with the diagnostic probe. Despite the benefits of PCR based technologies , such as high specificity and sensitivity to detect some parasites the main disadvantage of these methods is that they are very time consuming and do not provide quantitative data.

Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): It is sensitive and specific [13] and less time consuming method. It is characterized by use of DNA polymerase that has low sensitivity to inhibitors and the set of four primers to recognize six different sequences on target gene [14]. It can amplify 109 copies in an hour [15]. It is isothermal technique which uses water bath .It has been used for Babesia and Theileria [14-18]. It can be used without DNA extraction [19].


There are three effective drugs available for the treatment of Theileriosis namely; parvaquone, buparvaquone, and halofuginone lactate are used worldwide [20]. Research work regarding the efficacy of these drugs has shown that buparvaquone, second-generation hydroxynaphthoquinone, is more effective so far. Early treatment with buparvaquone was 100% effective in eliminating the protozoan parasites from the blood and lymph nodes and led to an improvement in the clinical state whereas treatment in the later stages of the disease whilst eliminating the parasites failed to improve the clinical condition of the animal [21].

Status of theileriosis in indian scenario

India being one of the 12 mega biodiversity country contribute significantly to world flora and fauna. As a result India with its tropical climate is hub of several vector borne diseases like bovine tropical theileriosis. T. annulata, the causative agent of tropical thcileriosis has a much wider distribution; it is found in Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Egypt to the Sudan, the Middle East, India, parts of the former Soviet Union and southern China. T.annulata, originating from Asian water buffalo (Bulbulusbubulis), and transmitted by several Hyalomma tick species, is responsible for tropical theileriosis from Southern Europe to China, a vast region in which an estimated 250 million cattle are at risk. Livestock plays a critical role in the welfare of India. Indigenous cattle are resistant to this disease but cross bred cattle are highly sensitive to theileria [22]. Thetheileria parasites have detrimental effect on the cows as it causes high mortality in the animals and there is an irreversible loss of production and reproduction. Theileria and Babesia both have same symptoms like high fever and both are fatal diseases, but in babesia blood comes out with the urine and hence it is also known as Red water disease. Medicine for babesia is easily available but for theileria it is not easily available as it is very costly. So small holder dairy farmers would prefer to run the risk of tropical theileriosis rather then they pay for the vaccines Serological surveys conducted indicated that 30-60% of cross bred cattle were positive for antibodies to T. annulata piroplasms, all over India, except in Himalayan regions, where climate is not favorable for tick activity. In India theileriosis has been reported from Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat etc. geographical regions. Reported the occurrence of T. Annulata among crossbred cattle in Bangalore north. [22] Reported 16 % positive cases of theileriosis in crossbred cattle of Northern Kerala. Reported 37% cattle found positive for the haemoprotozoan infection in Kaira and Anand District of Gujrat. Also reported a case of tropical theileriosis from West Bengal has reported the outbreaks of theileriosis in cattle of Punjab with 4.86% mortality rate.

If animals suffering from tropical theileriosis are treated with antiparasitic drugs, T. annulata is removed from lymph nodes and remains in blood at very low [21] and these animals becomes the carrier of parasites. In carrier animals blood smears are negative on microscopy [5]. Carrier animals have an important role in the transmission of infection by the Hyalomma ticks. Negative microscopic examination does not exclude the possibility of infection. Livestock are the important part of the rural population. Uttar Pradesh is specialized in smallholder dairy production system. Cattle have been the important species in the herd. Due to moderate climate of the region, ticks responsible for the blood-borne diseases are not in the active form or found less. No earlier case of theileriosis is reported from the region. But to increase the milk production rate, cross bred cattle have been introduced in the Uttar Pradesh state from the neighboring states like Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, etc where these diseases are prominent and many of these animals may be the carriers. These animals are the source of infection. Infection is usually caused by tick that migrates from carrier animals to non infected animals. Now some cases found positive for theileriosis in a preliminary survey. The reason for the occurrence of theileriosis is the introduction of carrier cattle to the herd of healthy animals. The stress due to extreme of climate may be the contributory factor.

Infection by theileria limits the movement of cattle between the countries and can result in the production losses and high mortality in susceptible animals. Due to lack of sensitive diagnostic methods and lack of cost effective treatment for the detection of clinical cases and carrier animal majority of cattle positive for theileria are left untreated.

Economic impact

Present status of the animal diseases needs a serious attention in terms of research have estimated the cost of T. annulata in India to be $384.3 million. Vaccination against this disease is not practiced due to higher cost and non-availability. To reduce the chance of introducing the parasite first is essential screening should be done before introduction of the cross bred cows to the areas where the chance of occurrence of such disease is very low or introduced from the districts where infection is uncommon. The second is treat the cattle for ticks on arrival and don’t mix them with home cattle. So the aim is monitoring cattle for the blood protozoan through microscopic examination and by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). PCR monitors the presence of Parasites Which Are Not Visible by Microscopic Examination and in the Preclinical Cases.

Effect on milk production

Theileria annulata infection was diagnosed as the cause of severely depressed milk yields in Friesian cows [23]. It was also found that cows of higher producing breeds were generally susceptive to the tick and the effect on milk production appeared to be greater [24].

Effect on reproduction

Previous studies confirmed that theileriosis has an adverse effect on reproduction. Pregnant animals introduced to endemic bush tick areas are especially at risk and should be monitored carefully after introduction for signs of theileriosis [25].

Effect on thyroid hormone

A number of experimental conditions have been used to evaluate hormonal secretion during heat stress including short-term temperature modification using environmental chamber, seasonal comparisons of hormonal-profiles and the use of micro climatic modification during period of heat stress [26]. Stated that the thyroid function in the lactating animals showed a general depression in the summer months and was normal or elevated during winter months.

It was also reported that thyroid hormones are affected in cases of tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata [27- 29]. It is stated that thyroid hormones, which affect growth, development, energy and efficiency metabolisms necessary for the development and normal functioning of many cells [30-32], are closely associated with the regulation of oxygen consumption [29] and [28] reported that thyroid hormones decrease in tropical theileriosis [34-40].


Tropical bovine theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata and transmitted by ticks of the genus Hyalomma may be controlled by one or more of the following methods: Management, with particular emphasis on movement control, Vector control by application of acaricides, preventing transmission of disease, Treatment of clinical disease using specific chemotherapeutics, Immunization with live vaccines and use of cattle resistant to ticks or the disease. Of these the most important and effective control method is the use of a live cell culture vaccine attenuated by prolonged culture in vitro of mononuclear cells persistently infected with macroschizonts of T. annulata. This vaccine, used chiefly in susceptible taurine dairy cattle, can now be complemented by using novel chemotherapeutic naphtha quinones such as parvaquone and buparvaquone which are very effective in treatment of the clinical disease in these valuable cattle.


The transmission dynamics and epidemiology of theilerosis vary according to prevailing tick population, cattle genotype, proximity of wildlife, and the interaction between tick and bovine populations. Hyalomma anatolicum is the principal vector of tropical bovine theileriosis and emergence of acaricides resistance further aggrevates the Indian situation. The ubiquitous carrier status of T.annulata in none descript zebu cattle has resulted in development of an enzootic stability. Acaricides still form the backbone of tick control programme in India. Promotion of the backyard poultry farming and concrete flooring in the animal house can further reduce the incidence of bovine tropical theileriosis. A future strategy of dual vaccination with tick antigen and associated recombinant T.annulata antigen can aid to achieve integrated protection in host. It was concluded that theileriosis is prevalent in different states of India


The authors are grateful to the Department of Science and Technology-SERB, New Delhi for funding through the Science and Engineering Research Board Project [grant number-PDF/2016/001816].


1. Robinson PM. Theileriosis annulata and its transmission-a review. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1982; 14: 3-12.

2. Balha T, Applied Veterinary Epidemiology. 1st edn. Elsevier Science Publishers, Sara Burger hart strata 25, 1989; Netherland.

3. Jithendran KP. Blood protista of cattle and buffaloes in Kangra valley, Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Anim. Sci. 1997; 67: 207-208.

4. Meenakshi sundaram A, Anna T, Malmarugan S. Concomitant theileria annulata and anaplasma marginale infections in a cross bred dairy herd. Ind J Vet & Anim Sci Res. 2014; 43: 422-425.

5. Aktas M, Dumanli N, Cetinkaya B, Cakmak A. Field evaluation of PCR in detecting Theileria annulata infection in cattle in eastern Turkey. Vet Rec. 2002; 150: 548-549.

6. Burridges MJ, Brown CG, Kimber CD. Theileria annulata: cross reaction between a cell culture schizont antigen and antigen of east African Theileria species in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Exp. Parasitol. 1994; 35: 374-380.

7. Pipano E, Shkap V. Vaccination against tropical theileriosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 916: 484-500.

8. Figueroa JV, Chieves LP, Johnson GS, Buening GM. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction based assay for the detection of Babesiabigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale DNA in bovine blood. Vet Parasitol. 1993; 50: 69-81.

9. Birkenheurer AJ, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB. Development and evalution of a seminested PCR for detection and differentiation of Babesiagibsoni (Asian genotype) and B. Canis DNA in canine blood samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2003; 41: 4172-4177.

10. Rampersad J, Cesar E, Campbell MD, Samlal M, Ammons D. A field evaluation of PCR for the routine detection of Babesia equi in horses. Vet Parasitol. 2003; 114: 81-87.

11. Criado-Fornelio A, Martinez-Marcos A, Buling-Saraña A, Barba-Carretero JC. Molecular studies on Babesia, Theileria and Hepatozoon in southern Europe. Part I. Epizootiological aspects. Vet Parasitol. 2003; 113: 189-201.

12. Gasser RB. Molecular tools--advances, opportunities and prospects. Vet Parasitol. 2006; 136: 69-89.

13. Parida M, Sannarangaiah S, Dash PK, Rao PV, Morita K. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): a new generation of innovative gene amplification technique; perspectives in clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Rev Med Virol. 2008; 18: 407-421.

14. Paris DH, Imwong M, Faiz AM, Hasan M, Yunus EB, Silamut K, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal PCR (LAMP) for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 77: 972-976.

15. Notomi T, Okayama H, Masubuchi H, Yonekawa T, Watanabe K, Amino N, et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000; 28: 63.

16. Nkouawa A, Sako Y, Nakao M, Nakaya K, Ito A. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species. J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 47: 168-174.

17. Bakheit MA, Torra D, Palomino LA, Thekisoe OM, Mbati PA, Ongerth J, et al. Sensitive and specific detection of Cryptosporidium species in PCR-negative samples by loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification and confirmation of generated LAMP products by sequencing. Vet Parasitol. 2008; 158: 11-22.

18. Iseki H, Alhassan A, Ohta N, Thekisoe OM, Yokoyama N, Inoue N, et al. Development of a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) method for the simultaneous detection of bovine Babesia parasites. J Microbiol Methods. 2007; 71: 281-287.

19. Njiru ZK, Mikosza AS, Matovu E, Enyaru JC, Ouma JO, Kibona SN, et al. African trypanosomiasis: sensitive and rapid detection of the sub-genus Trypanozoonby loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of parasite DNA. Int J Parasitol. 2008; 38: 589-599.

20. Ngumi PN, Lesan AC, Williamson SM, Awich JR, Morzaria SP, Dolan TT. Isolation and preliminary characterisation of a previously unidentified Theileria parasite of cattle in Kenya. Res Vet Sci. 1994; 57: 1-9.

21. Osman SA, Al-Gaabary MH. Clinical haematological and therapeutic studies on tropical theileriosis in water buffaloes (Bubalusbubalis) in Egypt. Vet Parasitol. 2007; 146: 337-340.

22. Nair AS, Ravindran R, Lakshmanan B, Kumar SS, Tresamol PV, Saseendranath MR, et al. Haemoprotozoa of cattle in Northern Kerala, India. Trop Biomed. 2011; 28: 68-75.

23. Michael SA, el Refaii AH, McHardy N, Rae DG. Effect of treatment of chronic theileriosis with buparvaquone on milk yields. Trop Anim Health Prod. 1989; 21: 218-222.

24. Norval RA, Lawrence JA, Young AS, Perry BD, Dolan TT, Scott J. Theileria parva: influence of vector, parasite and host relationships on the epidemiology of theileriosis in southern Africa. Parasitology. 1991; 102; 3: 347-356.

25. Rumberia RM, Eley RM, Young AS, Rowland AC, Watson ED. The effect of high and low dose Theileria parva infection on the reproductive function of Boran/Friesian heifers. Theriogenology. 1993; 40: 977- 986.

26. Johnson HD, Vanjonack WJ. Effects of environmental and other stressors on blood hormone patterns in lactating animals. J Dairy Sci. 1976; 59: 1603-1617.

27. Badiei K, Jaber M. Changes of hormones (T3, T4 and Cortisol) in Theileriaannulata infected cattle. Proceedings of the 22th World Buiatrics Congress. 18-23, Germany. 2002; 346-359.

28. Garg SL, Rose MK and Agarwali VK. Plasma cortisol and thyroid hormone concentration in cross bred cow calves affected with theleriosis. Indian Vet J. 2001; 78: 583-585.

29. Sangwan N, Sangwan AK, Singh S, Agarwal VK. Cortisol and thyroid hormones in relation to bovine tropical theileriosis. Indian J Anim Sci. 2002; 72: 1098-1099.

30. Guyton AC. Textbook of medical physiology. 7th edn. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia. 1986; USA.

31. Sanli Y. Veterianary Clinic Pharmacology and Medicine Therapy Principles. 3rd edn. Ozkan Matbaacilik Ltd. Ankara. 1999.

32. Turgut K, 2000. Veterinary Clinic laboratory Diagnosis. 2nd edn, Printer Gardeners, Konya.

33. Sawhney RC, Malhotra AS. Thyroid function during intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Int J Biometeorol. 1990; 34: 161-163.

34. Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Irrigation Department Uttar Pradesh. “Average rainfall pattern of Uttar Pradesh”. 2012.

35. Lin MH, Chen TC, Kuo TT, Tseng CC, Tseng CP. Real-time PCR for quantitative detection of Toxoplasma gondii. J Clin Microbiol. 2000; 38: 4121-4125.

36. Moorhouse PDS, Musisi FL, Mwase ET, Snacken M. The epidemiology of bovine theileriosis in Zambia: results of a longitudinal study in Southern Province. Proceedings of the 4thInternational Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics. Singapore: Singapore Veterinary Association: 1985; 389-391.

37. Musoke A, Morzaria S, Nkonge C, Jones E, Nene V. A recombinant sporozoite surface antigen of Theileria parva induces protection in cattle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992; 89: 514-518.

38. Neitz WO, Alexander RA, Clark R, Louw JG, De Kock VE. Theileriosis, gonderioses and cytauxzoonoses: a review. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1957; 27: 275-430

39. Tait A, Hall FR. Theileria annulata: control measures, diagnosis and the potential use of subunit vaccines. Rev Sci Tech. 1990; 9: 387-403.

40. Upkar Prakashan. Editorial Board Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge. Upkar Prakashan. 2008.

Received : 27 Dec 2017
Accepted : 22 Jan 2018
Published : 24 Jan 2018
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X