Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health

Are Medical Records Truly Prepared for Malpractice Liability in Cases of Suicide?

Research Article | Open Access | Volume 11 | Issue 2

  • 1. The Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Medicine, Israel
  • 2. The Jerusalem Mental Health Center, Israel
  • 3. The Department of Health Systems Management, Peres Academic Center, Israel
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Moshe Z. Abramowitz, The Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Medicine, Israel

The most common reason for a malpractice claim is suicide or attempted suicide. It is argued that suicide can be prevented if the danger is recognized and proper and timely treatment is provided. Failure to make an informed decision as to whether to admit an individual to a psychiatric unit generally constitutes the initial breach in a claim of negligence. The present study was designed to identify exactly what essential data was missing from files of completed suicides, using 39 medical case records of the risk-management files of the state-owned malpractice insurance company between 2004 and 2022 in Israel. We found that a great deal of important information was missing from those files (e.g., records of previous suicide attempts, documentation of disagreement between the emergency department and the patient as to whether the individual should be hospitalized, and information regarding a history or lack thereof of suicidal tendencies in the individuals immediate family). Our study demonstrates that lacking the proper documentation of vital patient history, allegations of negligence would be very difficult to disprove.


• Risk Management

• Negligence

• Suicide


Lubin G, Waitzman R, Abramowitz MZ (2023) Are Medical Records Truly Prepared for Malpractice Liability in Cases of Suicide?. Ann Psychiatry Ment Health 11(2): 1186.


Suicide is a major public health concern, and mental health professionals are often tasked with identifying and managing the care of individuals at risk for suicidal behavior. One high- risk population is comprised of individuals who have a history of prior psychiatric admission. An Israeli study found a much higher rate of suicides among Jews and other minority ethnic groups with a history of or current psychiatric hospitalization, the rates were 17.6 times higher than for those who were never hospitalized, and that among Arabs the corresponding rates were about 30 times higher[1].

Another high-risk population is made up of individuals who had been evaluated for suicide in an emergency department (ED) and then discharged [2]. Individuals who have recently been discharged from the ED of a general hospital, particularly those who have been treated for a mental health or substance abuse disorder, are at an increased risk of suicide. A comprehensive 30- year record linkage, UK-based study reports on a large dataset of individuals who died by suicide (n = 16,411), which indicates that among those last discharged from a general hospital, the rate was 3.1 times higher as compared to those last discharged from a psychiatric hospital, and that 24% of the deaths occurred within 3 months of discharge [3].

The percentage of suicides that occur within a specific time frame after ED discharge can vary depending on the population of concern and the specific study. This is difficult to ascertain because the risk of suicide after ED discharge can vary depending on a number of factors, including the individual’s psychiatric and medical history, the presence of co-occurring substance abuse disorders, and access to social support and follow-up care Several studies have examined the risk of suicide after ED discharge in specific populations (e.g., suicidal youth, bipolar individuals, older adults) [4-6], or when evaluating intervention programs [7], Other outcome studies deal with suicide as a (tangential) adverse event after ED discharge such as delays in care, etc. [2].

Those evaluated for suicide in an ED and subsequently were discharged comprise a non-homogenic group. Many generally mentally competent individuals resist psychiatric hospitalization; others can be potentially treated in a community setting; and in many instances, there are administrative and legal considerations that preclude immediate hospitalization.

In Israel, there were 60,000 visits to the psychiatric ED in 2021 for one reason or another, of which 24,033 were admitted to a psychiatric unit in the hospital and the rest referred for further treatment in an outpatient setting [8]. However, many of those referred for further treatment in the community drop out during the process, Owing either to inadequate outpatient accessibility (long waiting lists, etc.) or to difficulties in compliance and cooperation.

It is important to note that longitudinal studies tracking the trajectories of suicidal patients use different methodologies and populations, so the results may not be relevant to all individuals who are discharged from an ED. Many studies have investigated the outcomes among hospitalized suicidal patients, that is, those who were not discharged from the ED after only a brief evaluation and intervention [9.10].

The Impact of the Reduction of Inpatient Psychiatric Beds

During the last 30 years, decision makers have been promoting mental health settings and interventions based in the community as opposed to institutional settings [11]. This worldwide trend is particularly evident in Israel, where the number of psychiatric beds has decreased by 50% in this period.

Owing to the reduction on the number of inpatient psychiatric beds along with the stated policy of favoring outpatient settings over inpatient treatment, the question of whether to admit a potentially suicidal individual has become an acute psychiatric and risk-management dilemma. For this reason, various standardized interviews and clinical scales are potentially available in the ED to identify individuals who should be hospitalized based on the risk of suicide [12]. Unfortunately, the specificity and sensitivity of these tools are limited [13-15]. In Pokorny’s classic prospective study of 4800 patients treated in a psychiatric clinic in Houston, Texas, individuals were divided into high and low risk for suicide. Sixty-seven individuals within the group committed suicide during the period of the study. All attempts to identify specific subjects were unsuccessful, including the use of individual items, factor scores, and a series of discriminant functions [16]. Furthermore, 96.3% of the high-risk predictions in the Houston study were false positives and more than half of the suicides occurred in the low-risk group and were thus false negatives. Yet, the risk for committing suicide among those that were classified as high risk was approximately 4 times higher.

Moreover, a patient often considers the tools used in the ED evaluation to be non-empathetic and counterproductive in the effort to enhance cooperation in order to deter suicidal behavior. Apart from any standardized tool, every competent mental health professional should be able to obtain the basic information to make a risk-management decision to admit or to discharge (e.g., previous attempts, reason for visiting the ED, use of alcohol/psychoactive substances, etc.). Be that as it may, for a qualified mental health professional in the ED, the overall clinical impression of the patient is still the determining factor in the decision to hospitalize.

The present study was designed to identify exactly what essential data might be missing from files of completed suicides. We believe our approach is novel in that our database consisted of the records of the risk-management division of a state-owned malpractice insurance company. (In a similar study, Choi et al., investigated the connection between life insurance and suicidal behavior) [17].

Data from 30 years of psychiatric malpractice suits administered by a prominent psychiatric malpractice insurer in the United States reveal that the most common cause of a malpractice claim is suicide or attempted suicide [18]. Many assume that suicide can be prevented if the danger is recognized and timely treatment is provided.

We examined cases brought to the attention of a state-owned malpractice insurance company of individuals who committed suicide after being evaluated by Israeli ED personnel during a suicide crisis and were not admitted for inpatient care. We focused on determining the completeness of the relevant medical files.


The data from 39 cases of completed suicide events in governmental hospitals which cover 85% of the 3570 psychiatric beds in Israel, in both psychiatric and general hospitals were collected. We believe that the present sample provides good insight regarding the data, or lack thereof, recorded in the patient’s medical chart.

The study population comprised individuals aged between 22 and 77 from the years 2004to 2022 who died by suicide, that is, with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code X60-X84 or Y87.0 as underlying cause of death, after having been examined by a psychiatrist in the ED but not hospitalized. Twenty-six were male and thirteen female. All the medical records were reviewed by a senior psychiatrist (G.L.), who extracted the relevant data.



Data analysis was performed using JASP software. We used the non-parametric chi-square test to determine a significant association between two categorical variables. The p-value was considered statistically significant at p < 0.05.

Ethics Statement

The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the investigators’ institution and abided by Declaration of Helsinki guidelines.


Table 1 lists the description of the sample and socio- demographic data.

Table 1: Description of the sample (N=39)













Average age



Min. age



Max. age



Method of suicide















Previous suicidality









Suicidal thoughts only



Multiple suicide attempts



One suicide attempt only



Type of emergency department



Emergency department of general hospital



Psychiatric emergency department






Two-thirds of the sample were male and a majority of 59% were seen in the ED of a general hospital. In 15 cases (38.5%), there was no information about prior suicide attempts. No statistical relationship was found between the individuals’ demographic characteristics and the previous suicidality or method of suicide (Table 2).

Table 2: Pertinent data missing in the medical files (n=39)

Missing information

Number of files

with missing data

Percent of 39




Marital status



Type of emergency department



Reason for going to the ED



Previous psychiatric diagnosis noted



Attitude regarding psychiatric hospitalization



Data relating to stressors



Alcohol use noted



Substance use noted



Disagreement to be hospitalized between the emergency department and the patient documented





The time of the suicide event in relation to the time of discharge from the ED



Expressions of physical violence in the past documented



Suicidal background in the immediate family noted



Previous treatment with psychotropic medication noted



Figure 1 depicts the time and method of suicide in relation to the discharge of the individual from the ED.

Time Elapsed between Discharge from ED and Suicide (in  days).

Figure 1: Time Elapsed between Discharge from ED and Suicide (in days).

We found a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) between minimal time elapsed between the ED discharge and the suicide.


The dilemma of whether to admit an individual to a psychiatric ward during a suicidal crisis has clinical, ethical, and legal perspectives. There is a consensus that an educated decision can only be made if the clinician has all the necessary data upon which to make a competent determination. Good documentation and clear treatment records are crucial [18].

According to data from the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB), psychiatrists account for approximately 4% of all active roughly 15% of the psychiatric care not covered in our study. Admittedly, the study is modest in scope and was specifically designed to determine whether or not medical records are up to standard and prepared for malpractice suits, as well as to demonstrate what information might be missing.physicians but account for only 1% of all paid medical malpractice claims in the United States many of which involve suicide [19].

Our approach is novel in that we examined the records of the Israeli state-based malpractice liability insurance company, which insures most of the country’s psychiatric hospitals, to check if the medical notes in cases of suicide are complete. We have not seen a similar method of investigation anywhere in the literature.

We found that in nearly all of the 39 cases, which involved individuals aged between 22 and 77, in the years 2004 to 2022 who died by suicide, a great deal of important information is missing (Table   2). The record of previous suicidal attempts is absent in 15 cases (38%); documentation of disagreement between the ED and the patient about hospitalization was missing in 25 cases (64.1%); and there was no note as to whether or not there was suicidal background in the immediate family in 35 cases (89.7%). There was no documentation as to whether there were episodes of previous physical violence in 21 cases (53.8%).

We also found that most of the suicides occurred within a week of the ED discharge to a statistically significant degree. This is consistent with many previous studies using different methodologies, including a recent South Korean study of 74,741 suicide deaths from 2009 to 2013 that indicated that 7.9% of suicides of individuals who had any mental health contact occurred within a week [20].

Our findings have limitations. Although we reviewed the cases of the major state-owned insurance company, there remain roughly 15% of the psychiatric care not covered in our study. Admittedly, the study is modest in scope and was specifically designed to determine whether or not medical records are up to standard and prepared for malpractice suits, as well as to demonstrate what information might be missing.

In terms of suicide prevention, the age-standardized suicide rate for an individual examined in an ED and admitted was 17.6 times higher than that of the non-hospitalized) [1]. In this respect, the ED clinician serves as a gatekeeper, who must determine who is at high-risk and should be hospitalized and who is at a low risk and should be discharged. This determination also sets the basis for the means of intervention and suicide prevention in the short and long term.

In Israel, the age adjusted mortality rate per 100,000 persons aged 18 and over for persons with past psychiatric hospitalization in 2020 was 109.3.8 The persons hospitalized would be considered to be high risk. Alternatively, a person discharged from the ED is considered to be at a low-risk for suicide. Our study suggests that these critical decisions to discharge or hospitalize may be made without access to all the necessary information.

It is therefore essential that the ED medical records document all relevant information, record the patients’ understanding and cooperation with the treatment plan, and note any intervention. Our study clearly demonstrates that allegations of negligence brought to the insurers would be very difficult to disprove if proper documentation of vital patient history of an acceptable standard of care is lacking.

  1. Goldberger N, Haklai Z, Pugachova I, Levav I. Suicides among persons with psychiatric hospitalizations. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2015; 52: 25-31.
  2. Gill S, Mills PD, Watts BV, Paull DE, Tomolo A. A review of adverse event reports from emergency departments in the Veterans Health Administration. J Patient Saf. 2021; 17: e898-e903.
  3. Dougall N, Lambert P, Maxwell M, Dawson A, Sinnott R, McCafferty S, et al. Deaths by suicide and their relationship with general and psychiatric hospital discharge: 30-year record linkage study. Br J Psychiatry. 20l4; 204.
  4. Greenfield Brian, Alexia Jolicoeur-Martineau, Maria Brown, Alegra Kandiyoti, Melissa Henry, Tania Sasson, et al. Frequent follow-up of suicidal youth assessed in the emergency room: Long-term trajectory and predictors of suicidality. Prev Med. 2021; 152: 106737
  5. Ballard Elizabeth D, Farmer Cristan A, Shovestul Bridget, Vande Voort, Jennifer Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo Park, et al. Symptom trajectories in the months before and after a suicide attempt in individuals with bipolar disorder: A STEP-BD study. Bipolar Disorders. 2020; 22: 245- 254
  6. Soriano Barceló J, Portes Cruz J, Cornes Iglesias JM, Portela Traba B, Brenlla González J, Mateos Álvarez R. Health care contact prior to suicide attempts in older adults: A field study in Galicia, Spain. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría. 2020; 48: 106-115.
  7. Fossi L, Debien C, Demarty A, Vaiva G, Messiah A. Suicide reattempt in a population-wide brief contact intervention to prevent suicide attempts: The Vigilan S program, France. Eur Psychiatry. 2021; 64: E57.
  8. Mental Health in Israel Statistical Abstract 2021 Ministry of Health, Mental Health Division, January 2023, Jerusalem. 2023.
  9. Sakinofsky I. Preventing suicide among inpatients. Can J Psychiatry. 2014; 59: 131-140.
  10. Feluse Ayelet, Tomer Mevorach, Neta Horesh, Jack Asherov, Irina Briskman, Alan Apter. Comparative Epidemiology of Attempted and Fatal Suicide in a Defined Catchment Area in Israel, Arch Suicide Res. 2022.
  11. APA Dictionary of Psychology
  12. Saulnier KG, Volarov M, Velimirovi? M, Bauer BW, Kolnogorova K, Ashrafioun L, et al. Risk factors of suicidal behaviors in a high-risk longitudinal veteran sample: A network analysis. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2023; 53: 4-15.
  13. Steeg S, Kapur N, Webb R, Applegate E, Stewart SL, Hawton K, et al. The development of a population-level clinical screening tool for self- harm repetition and suicide: the ReACT Self-Harm Rule. Psychol Med. 2012; 42: 2383-2394.
  14. Nielssen O, Wallace D, Large M. Pokorny’s complaint: The insoluble problem of the overwhelming number of false positives generated by suicide risk assessment. BJPsych Bulletin. 2017; 41: 18-20.
  15. James Sall, Lisa Brenner, Amy M. Millikan Bell, Michael J Colston. Assessment and Management of Patients at Risk for Suicide: Synopsis of the 2019 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and U.S. Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Intern Med. 2019; 171: 343-353.
  16. Pokorny, AD. Prediction of suicide in psychiatric patients. Report of a prospective study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983; 40: 249–257.
  17. Choi Yun Jeong, Chen Joe Sawada Yasuyuki. “Life Insurance and Suicide: Asymmetric Information Revisited” The B.E. J Economic Analysis & Policy. 2015; 15: 1127-1149.
  18. Richard L. Frierson, Kaustubh G. Joshi. Malpractice Law and Psychiatry: An Overview Focus. 2019; 17: 332-336.
  19. Studdert DM, Bismark MM, Mello MM, Harman Singh, Mathew J Spittal. Prevalence and characteristics of physicians prone to malpractice claims. N Engl J Med. 2016; 374: 354-362
  20. Eun Jee Park, Nam Ju Ji, Weon Young Lee. Contact with the health care system prior to suicide: A nationwide population-based analysis using linkage national death certificates and national health insurance data. J Psychiatric Res. 2022; 149: 226-232.

Lubin G, Waitzman R, Abramowitz MZ (2023) Are Medical Records Truly Prepared for Malpractice Liability in Cases of Suicide?. Ann Psychiatry Ment Health 11(2): 1186

Received : 30 Nov 2023
Accepted : 27 Dec 2023
Published : 31 Dec 2023
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X