Loading

Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment

Community Based Study to Know Awareness of Birth Preparedness, and Complications Readiness Amongst Rural, Tribal Pregnant Women

Research Article | Open Access Volume 5 | Issue 1 |

  • 1. Emeritus Professor,Obstetrics Gynaecology
  • 2. Research Assistant
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
S. CHHABRA, Emeritus Professor,Obstetrics Gynaecology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Officer on Special Duty, Dr. SushilaNayar Hospital, Utavali, Melghat, Amravati, Chief Executive Officer, AkankshaShishugruha Kasturba Health Society, Sevagram,Wardha, Maharashtra
Abstract

Background: Birth preparedness and complications readiness during pregnancy are meant for safe birth with prevention of maternal, neonatal illnesses, deaths and safe future life of mother and baby. It is essential that women and their families are aware of BPCR and take required timely actions as per the need.

Objective: Study was carried out to know about rural, tribal pregnant women’s awareness and attitude towards BPCR. Material Methods: Community based study was conducted in tribal communities of 100 villages of rural, hilly forestry Melghat of Amravati, Maharashtra, India. Information was collected from 1040 women of 15-45 years,who had 5 months onwards pregnancy.

Results: Of 1040 study subjects, 757 (72.8%) knew that there was something like BPCR, but invery scatchy way, 259 (24.9%) said BPCR meant being aware of safety of baby, 69 (6.6%) said safety of mother, 226 (21.7%) did say to understand about prevention of complications, 135 said (13%) to know about diet and immunization and 68 (6.5%) said to know about hygiene. But 283 (27.2%) were not even aware that there was anything like BPCR. When asked how does BPCR benefit, 373 (35.9%) said anemia is diagnosed and therapy is possible, 242 (23.3%) said knowledge about contraception is gained, 127 (12.2%) did say that it helps in deciding place of birth, 114 (11%) said planning birth companion, 102 (9.8%) for arranging finances for birth and 82 (7.9%) said knowledge of complications helps.

Conclusion: Some pregnant women were aware of BPCR, but had very scatchy information, quite a few were not aware. A lot of awareness needs to be created in rural tribal

Keywords

Birth preparedness; Complications readiness; Awareness; Advantages

Citation

CHHABRA S, Malviya S (2021) Community Based Study to Know Awareness of Birth Preparedness, and Complications Readiness Amongst Rural, Tribal Pregnant Women. Ann Reprod Med Treat 5(1): 1025.

BACKGROUND

Birth preparedness and complications readiness (BPCR) during pregnancy are meant for prevention of maternal and neonatal complications and safe, timely and appropriate action if complications occur ,so that there is prevention of severe illnesses, death of the mother and the baby as well as mother and baby have safe future life. BPCR helps women to consider available maternal health services during pregnancy and prepare for prevention and timely action for potential complications. Ijang et al1 reported that though global annual number of maternal deaths decreased to an estimated 303,000 in 2015, avoidable morbidity and mortality remained a formidable challenge in many developing countries, which accounted for approximately 99% (302,000) of the global maternal deaths in 2015. BPCR is a strategy that has been globally endorsed as an essential component of safe motherhood programs meant to reduce delays in care to reduce maternal mortality and neonatal mortality rates. Lack of BPCR delays timely health seeking. Identification of complications, seeking timely health care and reaching right place and at right time are essential. BPCR is also a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care based on the understanding that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications are likely to reduce delay in obtaining right care. Delivery assisted by Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) is the single most important intervention to prevent maternal mortality. However Bhaumik et al2 and add space that there are lacunae, as the BP/CR messages do not translate to complete comprehensive full utilization of facility delivery.

OBJECTIVE

Community based study was carried out to know about the rural tribal pregnant women’s awareness of BPCR and its advantages.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Study was carried out in tribal communities of 100 villages of hilly forestry area of Melgh at of Amravati Maharashtra, India after approval of institute’s ethics committee.In these villages community based mother child care services were initiated, after having created a multispecialty health facility for 24 hours. 7 days services in one of these 100 villages. Information was collected from 1040 pregnant women of 15-45 years by including minimum 10 women with 5 months onwards pregnancy, randomly from each village. Interviews were conducted by using a pretested tool using the language which women understood. Some questions needed closed ended, yes or no answers and other short answers.

RESULTS

In the present study of 1040 pregnant women, 757 (72.8%) said that they were aware about BPCR but had scratchy knowledge of what does it mean and how does it benefit, 259 (21.9%) women said it was needed for the safety of the baby, 226 (21.7%) said to prevent complications, 135 (13.0%) said to know about diet and immunization advice, 69 (6.6%) said to be aware of needs for safety of mother and 68 (6.5%) for hygiene. Around 27% women were not even aware that there was anything like BPCR. Out of 1040 study subjects, 320 (99.1%) of 323 women of 15 to 19 years, said they were aware of BPCR but when asked about what does it mean, 204 (63.2%) said being aware for safety of baby,78 (24%) safety of the mother, 21 (6.5%)said to know about prevention of complications, 14 (4.3%)said have diet and immunization advice and 3 (0.9%) for learning about hygiene. Of 1040 study subjects, 56 were illiterate and48 (85.7%) of them had some awareness of BPCR and 52(92.9%) had kept some money aside for birth and new born.

All 943 (100%) housewives said they were aware that there was something like BPCR but they had no idea what needed to be known or done. When asked what does it mean, 49 (5.2%) said it meant to get dietary and immunization advice As the parity increased the number of women who said they were aware of BP increased. However 114 (97.4%) of 117 primigravida had kept some money aside for birth and new born, 291 (63.1%) of 461 women with 5 or more births, had kept money aside and102 (87.2%) of 117 who had one child said they were aware of BPCR.

When asked how does BPCR benefit, 373 (35.9%) said anemia is diagnosed and could be treated, 242 (23.3%) said knowledge about contraception is achieved, 127 (12.2%) said it helped in deciding place of birth,114 (11%) said it was possible to decide about birth companion, 102 (9.8%) said money could be arranged for birth and82 (7.9%)said awareness about complications.

DISCUSSION

BPCR is the strategy to help women to plan for needs of births and use of available maternal health services and stay prepared for potential complications and get skilled providers at birth Ijang et al. [1]. Reported that the concept of BPCR developed by the organizations of the United Nations helped to have awareness that pregnant women and their families seek health care without delay in case of complications. Its benefits have been proven in several countries. Reproductive and child health services providers needed to know and use the opportunities during antenatal care for the best of BPCR of women and their families. BPCR is among the key interventions that can reduce maternal mortality. In the present study of 1040 pregnant study subjects, 757 (72.8%) women said they were aware about BPCR but had very scratchy knowledge of BPCR and its benefits, 259 (21.9%) said it was needed for the safety of the baby but how, they did not know, 226 (21.7%) said to prevent complications, 135 (13.0%) said to know about diet and immunization advice, 69 (6.6%) safety of the mother and 68 (6.5%) said for hygiene. Around 27% women did not know that there was anything like BPCR. In the study by (1), of the 345 pregnant women, 159(46.1%) were aware of BPCR, but the practice of BPCR was unsatisfactory, as only 65(18.8%) women were considered prepared Ekabua et al. [2]. Have reported that educational status was the best predictor of awareness of BPCR, but not a good predictor of intention to attend desired antenatal clinic sessions. Plans to identify means of transport and the place of childbirth were related to greater awareness of BPCR. Parity was a highly significant predictor of planning to save money for childbirth and associated with greater awareness of community’s financial support system.

Tsegaw et al. [3] reported good knowledge of BPCR in 45.2% of pregnant women. In the multivariable analysis, having history of childbirth, having intended pregnancy, being governmental employee, and having antenatal care visits were independently and significantly associated with good knowledge of BPCR Henok [4]. Also suggested that it was better if local health system arranged community based education and empowered women by expanding educational opportunities Mulugeta et al. [5]. Have reported that in a quantitative facility based cross-sectional study, the knowledge of BPCR amongst primigravidawas low. Information given about dangers and BP during antenatal follow up was not comprehensive. Health care providers, health facility, other partners, program level managers and policy makers needed to take responsibility and work together to improve the health education and increase knowledge of BPCR through easily accessible health education strategies Zepre et al. [6] also reported relatively low BPCR, calling for more interventions beyond mere awareness and suggested that aviating transportation services and ensuring services free of charge would help in improving real benefits of BPCR and their benefits Dasanayake et al. [7]. With a descriptive cross sectional study, reported that BPCR were well-known concepts among third trimester mothers. Level of knowledge and BPCR practices were satisfactory among their study subjects. Women with higher maternal age had poor knowledge of BPCR. Women with better educational level and planned pregnancy had satisfactory practices on BPCR. Florence et al10also reported that the knowledge about BPCR was higher among the educated respondents.

Moshi et al11also reported that in their study too knowledge about BPCR was low August et al. [8]. Reported that it was not clear why BP messages did not translate into utilisation of facility delivery. In the present study many women had no idea but those who were aware also had scatchy awareness and the real awareness of BPCR and its impact were almost nonexistent Letose et al [9]. Also reported BPCR was low in their study; though significantly higher in urban women and researchers suggested that health workers should counsel every woman on BPCR components during first antenatal care visit and subsequent visits Kamineni et al. [10]. Reported that nearly three-fourth pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in an urban area were birth prepared. However, emergency readiness and awareness of danger signs were very poor Bintabara et al. [11]. Also reported that the proportion of women who were prepared for birth and its complications were low. In a hospital based study Padaguggari et al. [12] reported that three-fourth pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary care teaching hospital had average knowledge regarding BPCR 77.1%, three-fourth of them had good knowledge practice too (75.8%) Rai [13]. Reported that in a hospital based study antenatal mothers had inadequate knowledge with poor practices and were not associated with any socio-demography components, except knowledge was found to have association with occupation. In the study by Nkwosa et al. [14] BPCR knowledge and practice among the respondents was satisfactory. The study revealed that pregnant women relieda lot on information provided by their health care providers during antenatal period. So they needed to know.

that the proportion of women who were prepared for birth and its complications were low. In a hospital based study Padaguggari et al. [12] reported that three-fourth pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary care teaching hospital had average knowledge regarding BPCR 77.1%, three-fourth of them had good knowledge practice too (75.8%) Rai [13]. Reported that in a hospital based study antenatal mothers had inadequate knowledge with poor practices and were not associated with any socio-demography components, except knowledge was found to have association with occupation. In the study by Nkwosa et al. [14] BPCR knowledge and practice among the respondents was satisfactory. The study revealed that pregnant women relieda lot on information provided by their health care providers during antenatal period. So they needed to know.

for complications and essential newborn care and facilitate reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality in low performing districts in Bangladesh August [8]. Reported that community perceptions were in favor of using skilled care for BP/CR during pregnancy. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realization of the intention to use skilled care Saidu et al. [17].

Also did a community-based cross-sectional study and reported that women in the study area had poor knowledge and practice of BP/CR although perception was good. Education of the husband was the only significant predictor of knowledge of BP/CR, and husband’s occupation and respondent’s knowledge of BP/CR were the significant predictors of practice and suggested that efforts should be made to improve the educational status of the community, since education was a predictor of knowledge.

Bekele et al. [18] also reported that knowledge of maternity danger signs and BPCR were low and opined that enhancing women’s awareness and improving the quality of labour wards would improve delivery service utilization. In a study carried out to explore the association between knowledge of maternity dangers and BP among recently delivered women in Uganda, the prevalence of recently delivered women who had knowledge BP for key dangers was very low and researchers suggested that universal primary and secondary education programmes ought to be promoted so as to enhance the impact of knowledge of key dangers on BP practices 23 Cheptum et al. [19]. Reported that it needed to go beyond awareness and effort should also be made to improve its practice Takahashi et al. [20].

Did a study to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes of BP/ CR and the association between knowledge, attitudes and BP/CR and found low level of knowledge, neutral level of attitude and moderate level of BP/CR. There were significant differences of BP/CR between those with and without occupation and among rich and poor. In order to improve knowledge on BP/CR, it is important to strengthen health education through ANC and community with special focus on the poor and those with lesser parity.

Of 1040 study subjects of the present study, when asked about benefits of BPCR, 373 (35.9%) said if anemia was diagnosed its correction was possible, 242 (23.3%) said contraception knowledge was gained, 127 (12.2%) said place of birth and 114 (11%) birth companion could be decided and only 102 (9.8%) said money for birth could be planned and only 82 (7.9%) said that knowledge of complications was gained.

Bhaumik [21] did a qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs)explored the perceptions of the community and reported that the perceptions of the community regarding BP/CR were in favor of skilled care. The community was aware of the importance of attending ANC, saving money for buying supplies and organizing transport, but there was little awareness about recognizing complications and importance emergency care and it was important to provide information on BP/CR and schemes available for birth safely.

In the study by Dave et al. [22], 65.43% were found to have positive knowledge and practices of BP/CR. The variables which had significant effect on BPCR were: education, socioeconomic class, age at the time of marriage, order of pregnancy, mode of last delivery, number of live children, history of abortion, and duration of current pregnancy. BPCR improve preventive behavioral practices among to be mothers; thereby leading to improvement in care-seeking during obstetric emergency Bishaw et al. [23]. Reported that in Ethiopia the proportion of mothers who prepared for birth and its complications was low. Women living in urban area, having antenatal care visit, with history of stillbirth and those aware of danger signs during labor/childbirth were positively associated with BPCR.

Health facilities should strengthen health services in promoting early antenatal attendance and improving the information given during the follow up, with special emphasis given to BP. Shukla et al. [24] reported that focused BP counseling and CR could play an important role in increasing the baseline knowledge of pregnant women regarding pregnancy-related complications and bring out desirable ideal health-seeking behavior changes during pregnancy, measures related to BPCR during pregnancy play an important role in producing better pregnancy outcome. Azeze et al. [25] in their study to assess the practice and factors associated with BPCR among women in Southern Ethiopia reported that although not satisfactory in view of expectations, a relatively higher practice of BPCR had been observed in the study area compared with the previous reports. Healthcare workers at the grass root should be encouraged to involve women’s partners and/or family members while explaining BPCR with a special emphasis on older and uneducated women in order to improve the practice.

Table 1: Awareness of Birth Preparedness Complications Readiness.

Variables Total Awareness If Yes, Information
Yes % No % Safety of Mother % Safety of Baby % Complications Awareness % Knowledge about 
diet immunization 
advices
% Hygienic %
AGE
15 to 19 323 320 99.1 3 0.9 78 24 204 63.2 21 6.5 14 4.3 3 0.9
20 to 24 536 529 98.7 7 1.3 131 24.4 241 45.0 66 12.3 73   18 3.4
25 to 29 109 109 100 0 0.0 11 10.1 54 49.5 6 5.5 22   16 14.7
30 to 34 68 66 97.1 2 2.9 9 13.2 19 27.9 22 32.4 10   8 11.8
35 to 39 4 4 100 0 0.0 1 25.0 2 50.0 0 0.0 1   0 0.0
EDUCATION                              
ILLITERATE 56 48 85.7 8 14.3 3 5.4 24 42.9 18 32.1 11 19.6 0 0.0
PRIMARY 321 319 99.4 2 0.6 96 29.9 156 48.6 27 8.4 28 8.7 14 4.4
SECONDARY 358 356 99.4 2 0.6 82 22.9 177 49.4 51 14.2 37 10.3 11 3.1
HIGHER SECONDARY 196 196 100 0 0.0 41 20.9 58 29.6 22 11.2 46 23.5 29 14.8
GRADUCATE 66 66 100 0 0.0 9 13.6 22 33.3 8 12.1 9 13.6 18 27.3
POST GRADUCATE 43 43 100 0 0.0 8 18.6 26 60.5 4 9.3 4 9.3 1 2.3
ECONOMIC STATUS                              
UPPER 43 43 100 0 0.0 11 25.6 29 67.4 2 4.7 1 2.3 0 0.0
UPPER MIDDLE 51 51 100 0 0.0 4 7.8 39 76.5 3 5.9 4 7.8 1 2.0
UPPER LOWER 142 142 100 1 0.7 33 23.2 49 34.5 44 31.0 10 7.0 6 4.2
LOWER MIDDLE 186 186 100 3 1.6 37 19.9 79 42.5 22 11.8 25 13.4 23 12.4
LOWER 618 618 100 8 1.3 113 18.3 366 59.2 66 10.7 52 8.4 21 3.4
PROFESSION                              
HOUSEWIFE 943 943 100 0 0.0 141 15.0 466 49.4 221 23.4 49 5.2 66 7.0
OWNFARM LABOUR 53 51 96.2 2 3.8 17 32.1 26 49.1 3 5.7 6 11.3 1 1.9
LABOURER 40 34 85.0 6 15.0 5 12.5 26 65.0 0 0.0 8 20.0 1 2.5
OTHERWORK 4 0 0.0 4 100 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
PARITY                              
P.1 117 102 87.2 15 12.8 9 7.7 24 20.5 29 24.8 31 26.5 9 7.7
P.2 103 78 75.7 25 24.3 16 15.5 24 23.3 17 16.5 17 16.5 4 3.9
P.3 155 141 91.0 14 9.0 11 7.1 59 38.1 41 26.5 29 18.7 1 0.6
P.4 204 157 77.0 47 23.0 22 10.8 31 15.2 50 24.5 23 11.3 31 15.2
P.5 Above 461 279 60.5 182 39.5 11 2.4 121 26.2 89 19.3 35 7.6 23 5.0
TOTAL 1040 757 72.8 283 27.2 69 6.6 259 24.9 226 21.7 135 13.0 68 6.5

 

Variables Total Awareness of Birth Preparedness Complications Readiness
Deciding place of birthr % Money for birth % Birth companions % Knowledge about anemia and its correction % Knowledge about contraception % Knowledge 
about 
other complication
%
AGE
15 to 19 323 21 6.5 33 10.2 41 12.7 131 40.6 71 22.0 26 8.0
20 to 24 536 41 7.6 66 12.3 41 7.6 221 41.2 97 18.1 70 13.1
25 to 29 109 15 13.8 41 37.6 31 28.4 6 5.5 7 6.4 9 8.3
30 to 34 68 11 16.2 8 11.8 21 30.9 14 20.6 5 7.4 9 13.2
35 to 39 4 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 50.0 2 50.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
EDUCATION                          
ILLITERATE 56 4 7.1 2 3.6 17 30.4 21 37.5 6 10.7 6 10.7
PRIMARY 321 42 13.1 19 5.9 26 8.1 66 20.6 79 24.6 89 27.7
SECONDARY 358 41 11.5 31 8.7 149 41.6 59 16.5 41 11.5 37 10.3
HIGHER SECONDARY 196 31 15.8 26 13.3 79 40.3 21 10.7 14 7.1 25 12.8
GRADUCATE 66 6 9.1 3 4.5 9 13.6 4 6.1 33 50.0 11 16.7
POST GRADUCATE 43 11 25.6 6 14.0 21 48.8 1 2.3 0 0.0 4 9.3
ECONOMIC STATUS                          
UPPER 43 4 9.3 1 2.3 4 9.3 11 25.6 19 44.2 4 9.3
UPPER MIDDLE 51 11 21.6 6 11.8 21 41.2 4 7.8 4 7.8 5 9.8
UPPER LOWER 142 2 1.4 25 17.6 29 20.4 61 43.0 21 14.8 4 2.8
LOWER MIDDLE 186 41 22.0 64 34.4 16 8.6 25 13.4 14 7.5 26 14.0
LOWER 618 166 26.9 59 9.5 64 10.4 241 39.0 29 4.7 59 9.5
PROFESSION                          
HOUSEWIFE 943 79 8.4 67 7.1 41 4.3 461 48.9 201 21.3 94 10.0
OWNFARM LABOUR 53 12 22.6 5 9.4 11 20.8 16 30.2 2 3.8 7 13.2
LABOURER 40 1 2.5 0 0.0 3 7.5 26 65.0 6 15.0 4 10.0
OTHERWORK 4 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 75.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 25.0
PARITY                          
P.1 117 3 2.6 2 1.7 41 35.0 67 57.3 2 1.7 2 1.7
P.2 103 11 10.7 23 22.3 31 30.1 26 25.2 4 3.9 8 7.8
P.3 155 19 12.3 21 13.5 12 7.7 28 18.1 41 26.5 34 21.9
P.4 204 69 33.8 51 25.0 19 9.3 11 5.4 24 11.8 30 14.7
P.5 Above 461 25 5.4 5 1.1 11 2.4 241 52.3 171 37.1 8 1.7
TOTAL 1040 127 12.2 102 9.8 114 11.0 373 35.9 242 23.3 82 7.9
CONCLUSION

Some rural tribal pregnant women did say they were aware about BPCR, but the number was small. Amongst those who said they had awareness also the information was scatchy. Quite a few did not know anything. A lot of awareness needs to be created about the meaning of BP and CR and also help women and families.

REFERENCES

1. Ijang YP, Cumber SN, Nkfusai CN, Venyuy MA, Bede F, et al. Awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in the Bamenda Health District, Cameroon. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2019;19: 371.

2. Ekabua JE, Ekabua KJ, Odusolu P, Agan TU, Iklaki CU, et al. Awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness in southeastern Nigeria. ISRN obstetrics and gynecology. 2011; 2011: 560641.

3. Tsegaw HZ, Cherkos EA, Badi MB, Mihret MS. Intended pregnancy as a predictor of good knowledge on birth preparedness and complication readiness: the case of Northern Ethiopia pregnant mothers. International journal of reproductive medicine. 2019.

4. Henok A. Knowledge towards birth preparedness and complication readiness among mothers who attend antenatal care at Mizan-Aman General Hospital, South West Ethiopia. J Health Med Nurs. 2015; 15: 51-57.

5. Mulugeta AK, Giru BW, Berhanu B, Demelew TM. Knowledge about birth preparedness and complication readiness and associated factors among primigravida women in Addis Ababa governmental health facilities, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2015. Reproductive health. 2020;17: 15.

6. Zepre K & Kaba M. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. International journal of women’s health. 2017; 9: 11-12.

7. Dasanayake D, Ganewatta S & Rathnayaka N. Knowledge and practices on birth preparedness and complication readiness among antenatal mothers; a study from southern provinc. Sri Lanka Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2018;40.

8. August F, Pembe AB, Kayombo E, Mbekenga C, Axemo P, et al. Birth preparedness and complication readiness–a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania. Global health action. 2015;8: 26922.

9. Letose F, Admassu B, Tura G. Birth preparedness, complication readiness and associated factors among pregnant women in Agnuak zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a community based comparative cross-sectional study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2020;20:72. 

10. Kamineni V, Murki AD & Kota VL. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in pregnant women attending urban tertiary care hospital. Journal of family medicine and primary care. 2017; 6: 297-300.

11. Bintabara D, Mohamed MA, Mghamba J, Wasswa P & Mpembeni RN. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among recently delivered women in chamwino district, central Tanzania: a cross sectional study. Reproductive health. 2015;12:44.

12. Padaguggari IF, Shivaswamy MS, Chougule SB. A cross-sectional study on knowledge and practices regarding birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at KLE’S Dr. PrabhakarKore Hospital and Medical Research Center, Belagavi. Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research (KLEU). 2018;11:254-259.

13. Rai S & Saha A. Birth Preparedness And Complication Research Readiness Among Women. Med Phoenix. 2018; 3:16-20.

14. Nkwosa CR, Maduka O & Diorgu FC. Birth preparedness and complication readiness knowledge and practice by pregnant women in a cottage hospital Nigeria. J Gynec Obstet. 2017;1: 014.

15. Mbonu EO. Knowledge, Attitude and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness amongst pregnant women in Eti-OsaLga, Lagos. Universal Journal of Public Health. 2018; 6:220-30.

16. Moinuddin M, Christou A, Hoque DM, Tahsina T, Salam SS, et al. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) among pregnant women in hard-to-reach areas in Bangladesh. PloS one. 2017;12: e0189365.

17. Saidu AD, Oche MO, Raji MO, Nnadi DC, Mohammed BA, et al. Perception and determinants of knowledge and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness in a rural community. Sahel Medical Journal. 2019;22:179-187.

18. Bekele S & Alemayehu T. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Chiro Zonal Hospital Eastern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Reproductive Health. 2018;10.

19. Cheptum J, Omoni G, Mirie W. Knowledge and practice of birth preparedness among women of child bearing age in Migori County, Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. 2017;11:190.

20. Takahashi Y, Chuemchit M. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of birth preparedness and complication readiness in relation to skilled birth attendant among delivered women in SvayRieng province, Cambodia. Journal of Health Research. 2016; 30: S35-44.

21. Bhaumik A. A qualitative study of birth preparedness and complication readi-ness among community members in a rural area. J. Med. Sci. Clin. Res. 2019;7:198-204.

22. Dave VR, Rana BM, Khanpara HJ, Sonaliya KN & Tolani J. Assessment of the birth preparedness and complication readiness among antenatal women at Ahmedabad city, India. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2017;10:1278.

23. Bishaw W, Awoke W & Teshome M. Birth preparedness and complication readiness and associated factors among pregnant women in Basoliben District, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013. Primary Health Care: Open Access. 2014; 4: 1-6.

24. Shukla M, Khan NZ, Agarwal A, Dwivedi AD, Singh JV, et al. Effect of focused birth preparedness and complication readiness counseling on pregnancy outcome among females attending tertiary care hospital in Barabanki district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of education and health promotion. 2019;8: 113.

25.  Azeze GA, Mokonnon TM, Kercho MW. Birth preparedness and complication readiness practice and influencing factors among women in Sodo town, Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia, 2018; community based cross-sectional study. Reproductive health. 2019 ;16:1-2.

CHHABRA S, Malviya S (2021) Community Based Study to Know Awareness of Birth Preparedness, and Complications Readiness Amongst Rural, Tribal Pregnant Women. Ann Reprod Med Treat 5(1): 1025.

Received : 03 Jun 2020
Accepted : 02 Jul 2020
Published : 05 Jul 2020
Journals
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X