Annals of Vaccines and Immunization

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Its Application and Perspective

Review Article | Open Access Volume 1 | Issue 1 |

  • 1. Department of Gynecologic Oncology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Japan
  • 2. Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Japan
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Kiyomi Taniyama, Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization, Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, 3-1 Aoyama-cho, Kure 737-0023, Japan

Two prophylactic vaccines against HPV16 and 18 infections are commercially available. Published clinical trials with these HPV vaccines report their use in protection against cervical CIN2+ if girls are vaccinated before their sexual debut. Even though HPV 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer and an almost 100% of effectiveness would be expected against these cancers, other types may frequently cause cervical cancers in aged women > 50 years. Serious adverse events of the vaccine are a matter of public concern in Japan despite a low incidence rate. After the current vaccines have been implemented world-wide, cervical cancer screening must be undertaken with special attention to changing HPV types and age distribution of patients with cervical cancer.


Takehara K, Taniyama K (2014) Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Its Application and Perspective. Ann Vaccines Immunization 1(1): 1002.


Cervical cancer is an important global public health problem, because it is a common cause of death among women and is attributable to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection [1]. Worldwide HPV prevalence in women with normal cytology is approximately 10% at any given point in time indicating that HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Most HPV infections are harmless and clear spontaneously. However, persistent infection with high-risk HPV, particularly type 16 can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx.HPV 16 has been detected in approximately 24% of women with HPV infection; HPV 18 has been detected in approximately 9% [2]. HPV 16 and 18 account for approximately 70% of all cervical cancer.

Two prophylactic vaccines against HPV16 and 18 infections have been recently become commercially available. One is a bivalent vaccine (CervarixTM, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) and the other is a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil®, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ USA).

This article reviews the results of published clinical trials using these HPV vaccines and considers the perspective of cervical cancer screening in the future if these two vaccines are theoretically used world-wide.

HPV infection and pathogenesis of cervical lesion

Harald zur Hausen and his colleagues who proposed the link between cervical cancer and HPV gave a firm molecular basis through discovery and molecular cloning of HPV16 and 18. They identified that these were carcinogenic, high-risk HPV for the majority of cervical cancers, and observed that the HPV E6 and E7 genes were preferentially retained and expressed in cervical cancer cell lines. Thereafter, several epidemiologic studies validated that HPV infection is the primary cause of approximately 100% of cervical cancers [3].

HPV infection is the most common infection worldwide, and most sexually active individuals of both sexes acquire it at some point during their life [4]. More than 100 types of HPV have been identified, and over 40 mucosal HPV types infect the lower female genital tract. Low-risk types 6 and 11 cause 10% of lowgrade lesions and 90% of condylomatous genital warts. Another 15 high-risk HPV types can cause cervical cancer and are known as cancer-associated HPV types [5]. HPV 16 and 18 are among the carcinogenic HPV types, causing approximately 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide, and they are targeted by the current versions of the HPV vaccine [6]. Persistent infections with these carcinogenic HPV types are essential to cause cervical cancer [7- 9], and they can cause several other cancers, such as cancer of the anus, vagina, vulva, penis, and oropharynx [9-11].

Prospective studies have shown that HPV infection includes a mixture of incident and persistent infections that have accumulated over time [12,13]. More than 90% new HPV infections at any age regress in 6–18 months [14], and longer persistent infection is a prerequisite for progression to Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) [15]. HPV infections detected in women aged > 30 years persist longer compared with those in younger women because these infections are more likely to be persistent [16,17].

The life cycle of HPV is integrally linked to epithelial differentiation. Initial infection of the basal cell occurs because of microscopic breaks in the epithelium [18,19]. The infecting HPV virions appear to attach to the basal stem cell through tissuespecific heparan sulfate proteoglycans [20-22]. The HPV genome encodes DNA sequences for six Early (E) proteins associated with viral gene regulation and cell transformation, two Late (L) proteins, which form the shell of the virus, and a region of regulatory DNA sequences known as the long control region or upstream regulatory region [23,24].The two most important HPV proteins in the pathogenesis of malignancy are E6 and E7. Both E6 and E7 proteins act in a cooperative manner to immortalize epithelial cells [25]. For some high-risk HPV infections, E6 and E7 are effective at breaking negative regulators of the cell cycle. At the molecular level, E6 and E7 proteins start oncogenesis through well-characterized interactions with products of tumor suppressor genes: TP53 for E6 and Retinoblastoma (Rb) for E7. E6 targets TP53 for degradation through the ubiquitin pathway, preventing apoptosis and enabling potentially transformed cells to replicate [26]. E7 contributes to oncogenesis through its interaction with the Rb family members RB1, RBL1, and RBL2. High-risk E5 works with E6 and E7 to drive cellular proliferation, and it may be a weak cofactor in the development of malignancy [27].

HPV vaccines

At present, two vaccines have been developed against HPV infection. One is a bivalent vaccine (CervarixTM) and the other is a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil®). CervarixTM was designed to prevent HPV 16 and 18 infection. Gardasil® targets the same two types, and it is also intended to prevent infection by HPV 6 and 11, which cause 75%-90% of external genital warts. These vaccines contain HPV L1 self-assembling virus-like particles (VLPs), which induce strong neutralizing antibody responses against HPV infection [28]. The HPV L1 VLPs do not contain the HPV viral genome or any other genetic material; therefore, they are considered non-infectious and non-carcinogenic. Preclinical research demonstrated that L1 is highly immunogenic with and without an adjuvant [29,30].

In natural genital HPV infections, lesions are cleared because of a successful cell-mediated immune response directed against HPV E proteins. The humoral response in natural HPV infection mostly targets the conformational epitopes in the variable regions of the major viral coat protein L1 [31]. However, the humoral response to natural infection is slow and weak [32,33]. Seroconversion, defined as the appearance of anti-HPV antibodies, appears to occur 6–18 months after the infection. HPV L1-specific antibodies have been considered to be markers of past or current infection because they are more frequently detected in subjects with persistent infections and precancerous lesions. In contrary, HPV antigens, such as E1, E2, and E6, do not appear to evoke measurable antibody responses in natural infections [34].

In contrast to natural infections, HPV vaccination induces high antibody titers against HPV L1, conferring protection against new infections and disease amongst virtually all women naive to those HPV types [35,36]. Both vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic in clinical trials, resulting in essentially 100% seroconversion. Following vaccination, geometric mean antibody titers for the vaccine types peaked at month 7, with titers 10-100- fold higher compared with those induced by natural infection [35,37]. Titers for both vaccines generally peaked one month after the third dose, declined over the next year, and remained relatively stable for the duration of follow-up (an additional 4.0 and 4.5 years for CervarixTM and Gardasil®, respectively) [38,39].

Efficacy of vaccines

As shown in several global randomized clinical trials, the two vaccines confer almost 100% protection against infection and diseases related to the HPV types mentioned above [36,38-44]. The vaccines showed high efficacy against CIN2+ associated with HPV16 and 18 as well as some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types. They also showed substantial overall effects in cohorts that are relevant to universal mass vaccination and catch-up programs. Data from the end-of-study analysis of PATRICIA using the bivalent vaccine [45] showed a cross-protective efficacy of the HPV 16 and 18 vaccine against four oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types, HPV 33, 31, 45, and 51. This cross protective efficacy is associated with cross-protective immune responses in HPV types that are phylogenetically related to HPV 16 and 18, respectively [46]. The quadrivalent vaccine is expected to prevent a large proportion of anogenital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatoses in both men and women. In addition, these vaccines could provide protection to prevent HPV-related cancers at several other sites in which HPV 16 accounts for an overwhelming majority of HPVassociated cancers. These include cancers of the vulva and vagina in women, penile cancers in men, and cancers of the anal canal and oropharyngeal / tonsillar region in both men and women. The UK Health Protection Agency analyzed the effect and cost effectiveness of the two HPV vaccines and concluded that the quadrivalent vaccine may have an advantage over the bivalent vaccine in reducing healthcare costs and quality adjusted lifeyear lost while the bivalent vaccine may have an advantage in preventing death due to cancer [47]. These results imply that we should consider the differential benefits of the two available HPV vaccines in terms of their efficacy against non-vaccine HPV types, duration of protection, and preventative diseases.

Who to vaccinate

Clinical trial data of vaccine efficacy in males and females suggest that immunization with HPV vaccine is most effective among individuals who have not been infected with HPV (e.g., patients who are “HPV-naïve”). Thus, the optimal time for HPV immunization is before the individual’s sexual debut.

Various HPV vaccination programs are coming into force, although the primary goals of HPV vaccination programs have been the prevention of cervical cancer among women and girls. Nevertheless, recent clinical trial data has shown the efficacy of vaccination in men [48] and the potential for herd immunity; thus, vaccination of adolescent boys is being recommended in some developed regions. Australia provides an example of a successful publicly funded mass vaccination program, which began in April 2007 using the quadrivalent vaccine. New cases of genital warts have not only fallen by 73% in vaccine-aged young women but also by 44% in young men who were not part of the free vaccination program. These findings strongly suggest that mass vaccination of girls provides substantial herd immunity [49]. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine demonstrated high efficacy, immunogenicity, and acceptable safety in women aged 24-45 years, regardless of previous exposure to HPV vaccine type [50,51]. In the UK, the uptake of vaccination in a school-based program for girls aged 12–13 years was 83%. In the catch-up campaign for older teenagers, which relied largely on general practices, only 41% of eligible individuals received three doses (https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/departmentof-health ). A history of an abnormal Papanicolaou test, genital warts, or HPV infection is not a contraindication to HPV immunization [52]. However, immunization is less beneficial for females who have already been infected with one or more of the HPV vaccine types.

To accommodate a wider range of on-request vaccinations, the USA and other countries have included a catch-up age range for vaccination, which overlaps with the typical age of onset of sexual activity. Because the effectiveness of the vaccine as prophylaxis is higher for a fully vaccinated woman who has not had any sexual activity compared with a woman vaccinated after the onset of sexual activity, the catch-up vaccination policy has implications for health economics. Prophylactic HPV vaccination has been estimated to be cost effective, with the up-front expenditure for vaccination offset by the costs averted through disease prevention [53]. This assumption depends on the age at vaccination, screening intervals, female only or male and female programs, and the cost of the vaccine. The data obtained suggest that the cost of cervical cancer screening could be substantially reduced by ensuring high coverage HPV vaccination with its consequent drop in high-grade cytology and colposcopy referrals. The association between HPV infection and several other anogenital diseases, including anal, vaginal, and vulval cancers, as well as oropharyngeal cancers [54], suggests that prophylactic HPV vaccination may also protect against some of these cancers. Despite proven efficacy against HPV-associated anal disease [48], cost effectiveness models in regions of the world that offer vaccination to both girls and boys have shown that providing vaccination to both sexes is considerably less cost effective compared with vaccination of girls only, unless vaccine costs can be substantially decreased or a high coverage in adolescent girls cannot be achieved [55].

In contrast, mathematical modelers have compared the effect and cost effectiveness of bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccination, concluding that the quadrivalent vaccine may have an advantage over the bivalent vaccine in reducing healthcare costs and quality adjusted life-year lost primarily because the bivalent vaccine does not protect against anogenital warts [47]. Arguments for male vaccination do not solely relate to the cost but also to the additional health benefits of moving from a sex-specific strategy to a vaccination policy seeking to prevent disease in both sexes, with the potential for herd immunity. Haupt et al reported the effect of a HPV vaccine on the development of CIN grade 2-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2-3/AIS) in women with ongoing HPV16 or 18 infections for pre-vaccination [56]. The results revealed no difference between vaccine and placebo groups in the incidence of HPV16/18-related CIN2-3/AIS. In other words, these data suggest HPV vaccination neither reduces nor enhances progression to HPV16/18-related high-grade cervical lesions. These vaccines have little, if any, prophylactic effectiveness in people that have been previously exposed to the virus types contained in the vaccine because they were not designed as therapeutic vaccines [44,57]. In women who were DNA positive for one vaccine HPV type, the vaccine was efficacious against the other vaccine type. The vaccine did not affect the outcome of HPV 16 and 18 infections present at the time of vaccination [58].

In FUTURE I and FUTURE II trials, retrospective analysis was performed to determine the effect of HPV quadrivalent vaccine on the risk of developing subsequent disease after an excisional procedure for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or diagnosis of genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of any subsequent high-grade disease of the cervix by 64.9% [59]. However, HPV vaccination does not reduce progression to cervical pre-cancers in women with ongoing infections at the time of vaccination [56,60,61], and no studies have considered the effect of HPV vaccination in preventing subsequent disease after treatment for such precancers thus far. In other words, vaccination does not reduce the progression to disease in women who are infected with HPV at the time of vaccination; however, vaccination offered substantial benefit to women who were treated for disease in the context of these studies and were at risk for developing subsequent disease [59].

Safety of HPV vaccine

VLPs are noninfectious protein subunit vaccines and may, therefore, be expected to have safety profiles similar to other protein subunit vaccines, such as tetanus or hepatitis B virus vaccine. The most common vaccine-related adverse eventsincluded local transient mild to moderate pain and erythema at the site of injection. These reactions were significantly elevated compared with controls. For instance, local pain reported in VLP vaccines and controls was 90.5% and 78.0% in the PATRICIA study, and 85.3% and 75.4% in the FUTURE I trials, respectively [36,42]. Other adverse events were allergic reaction; dermatologic/mucosa (25%), rash (22%), and local/injection site reaction (20%). Furthermore, of 133 (0.019%) adverse events among 691994 quadrant HPV vaccine doses distributed in a school-based program in Ontario, Canada reported in 2014, 10 (7.5%) were serious events, including 2 anaphylaxis, 2 seizures, 1 thrombocytopenia, and 1 death. This report stressed on the significance of continued assessment of adverse event survaillance data [62]. For instance, in 2013, Japan television aired a shocking movie about a school girl who suffered a serious neurological event following the vaccination. Although the relation between the event and vaccination remains unclear, the event was reported so critically that the vaccination program has been under re-evaluation with no progression until February 2014.

Post-vaccine cervical cancer screening

The HPV vaccine is almost 100% effective in preventing HPV 16 and 18 infections. However, it cannot perfectly prevent other high-risk HPV infections. In Japan and some other countries, HPV 52 and 58 are also frequently detected in addition to HPV 16 (Table 1). Moreover, in Japan, HPV 52 and 58 detection rates are higher compared with HPV 16 detection rates observed in individuals > 50 years of age (Figure 1; [63]). In some cases vaccinated people can still get an HPV infection, and there is still a possibility of developing cervical cancer and cervical lesions caused by pre-vaccine infection of HPV. Therefore, all women including those vaccinated for HPV should be routinely checked for cervical cancer starting at age 21 years or within 3 years of first sexual contact even after the HPV vaccination. There is a debate concerning the efficacy of a “pap smear” versus an HPV test. The effectiveness of these tests depend on how developed the system for cervical cancer screening is in a specific community or nation. The “pap smear” would be more beneficial in countries with sufficient well-trained cytotechnologists, cytopathologists, and well-organized autoanalyzers of cervical cancer. However, in other countries with less developed screening systems, HPV tests would be more beneficial. Novel techniques or markers to predict disease progression of cervical pre-cancer lesions need to be explored.

Table 1: High Risk Type HPV in HPV Positive Cervical Samples in Japan

                                                                                           HPV Types
Classification 16 52 58 51 31 56 39 18
ASCUS+ (n=868) 236 (27.2%) 232 (26.7%) 198 (22.8%) 83 (9.6%) 74 (8.5%) 63 (7.3%) 61 (7.0%) 60 (6.9%)
HSIL/SCC/ADC* (n=486) 174 (35.8%) 138 (28.4%) 119 (24.5%) 42 (8.6%) 48 (9.9%) 18 (3.7%) 27 (5.6%) 35 (7.2%)

Abbreviation: ASCUS+: Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance or more; HSIL: High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion; SCC: Squamous Cell Carcinoma; ADC: Adenocarcinoma Number and percentages in the parenthesis were obtained from the final data of CCLBC study [62], in which 11,039 cervical samples were enrolled and 868 (66.7%) in 1302 ASCUS+ were HPV positive. HPV typing was performed by multiplex PCR method[64].


HPV vaccines that are available today protect against precancerous lesions associated with HPV 16 and 18. The quadrivalent vaccine also targets HPV 6 and 11. We should consider the differential benefit of the two available HPV vaccines. Most importantly, we should promote broad vaccination and cancer screening to avoid cervical cancer burden and severe adverse events.


1. Bosch FX, Manos MM, Munoz N, Sherman M, Jansen AM, Peto J, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87: 796-802.

2. de Sanjosé S, Diaz M, Castellsagué X, Clifford G, Bruni L, Muñoz N, et al. Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007; 7: 453-459.

3. zur Hausen H. Papillomaviruses in human cancer. Appl Pathol. 1987; 5: 19-24.

4. Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, McQuillan G, Swan DC, Patel SS, et al. Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States. JAMA. 2007; 297: 813-819.

5. Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet. 2007; 370: 890-907.

6. de Sanjose S, Quint WG, Alemany L, Geraets DT, Klaustermeier JE, Lloveras B, et al. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study. Lancet Oncol. 2010; 11: 1048-1056.

7. Muñoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S, Herrero R, Castellsagué X, Shah KV, et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 518-527.

8. Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999; 189: 12-19.

9. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 74-108. 

10. D’Souza G, Kreimer AR, Viscidi R, Pawlita M, Fakhry C, Koch WM, et al. Case-control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1944-1956.

11. Kreimer AR, Clifford GM, Boyle P, Franceschi S. Human papillomavirus types in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas worldwide: a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14: 467- 475.

12. Castle PE, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Rodriguez AC, Bratti MC, et al. A prospective study of age trends in cervical human papillomavirus acquisition and persistence in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. J Infect Dis. 2005; 191: 1808-1816.

13. Munoz N, Mendez F, Posso H, Molano M, van den Brule AJ, Ronderos M, et al. Incidence, duration, and determinants of cervical human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of Colombian women with normal cytological results. J Infect Dis. 2004; 190: 2077-2087.

14. Greer CE, Wheeler CM, Ladner MB, Beutner K, Coyne MY, Liang H, et al. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution and serological response to HPV type 6 virus-like particles in patients with genital warts. J Clin Microbiol. 1995; 33: 2058-2063.

15. Castle PE, Rodríguez AC, Burk RD, Herrero R, Wacholder S, Alfaro M, Morales J. Short term persistence of human papillomavirus and risk of cervical precancer and cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2009; 339: b2569.

16. Maucort-Boulch D, Plummer M, Castle PE, Demuth F, Safaeian M, Wheeler CM, et al. Predictors of human papillomavirus persistence among women with equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology. Int J Cancer. 2010; 126: 684-691.

17. Rodriguez AC, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, Bratti C, Sherman ME, et al. Longitudinal study of human papillomavirus persistence and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3: critical role of duration of infection. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010; 102: 315-324.

18. Doorbar J. Molecular biology of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. Clin Sci (Lond). 2006; 110: 525-541.

19. Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines. J Clin Invest. 2006; 116: 1167-1173.

20. Johnson KM, Kines RC, Roberts JN, Lowy DR, Schiller JT, Day PM. Role of heparan sulfate in attachment to and infection of the murine female genital tract by human papillomavirus. J Virol. 2009; 83: 2067-2074.

21. Selinka HC, Florin L, Patel HD, Freitag K, Schmidtke M, Makarov VA, et al. Inhibition of transfer to secondary receptors by heparan sulfatebinding drug or antibody induces noninfectious uptake of human papillomavirus. Journal of virology. 2007; 81: 10970-10980.

22. Shafti-Keramat S, Handisurya A, Kriehuber E, Meneguzzi G, Slupetzky K, Kirnbauer R. Different heparan sulfate proteoglycans serve as cellular receptors for human papillomaviruses. Journal of virology. 2003; 77: 13125-13135.

23. Palefsky JM. Anal human papillomavirus infection and anal cancer in HIV-positive individuals: an emerging problem. AIDS. 1994; 8: 283- 295.

24. Palefsky JM, Holly EA. Molecular virology and epidemiology of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995; 4: 415-428.

25. Münger K, Phelps WC, Bubb V, Howley PM, Schlegel R. The E6 and E7 genes of the human papillomavirus type 16 together are necessary and sufficient for transformation of primary human keratinocytes. J Virol. 1989; 63: 4417-4421.

26. Tommasino M, Accardi R, Caldeira S, Dong W, Malanchi I, Smet A, et al. The role of TP53 in Cervical carcinogenesis. Hum Mutat. 2003; 21: 307-312.

27. Maufort JP, Shai A, Pitot HC, Lambert PF. A role for HPV16 E5 in cervical carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2010; 70: 2924-2931.

28. Zhao Q, Allen MJ, Wang Y, Wang B, Wang N, Shi L, et al. Disassembly and reassembly improves morphology and thermal stability of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles. Nanomedicine. 2012; 8: 1182-1189.

29. Kirnbauer R, Booy F, Cheng N, Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992; 89: 12180-12184.

30. Harro CD, Pang YY, Roden RB, Hildesheim A, Wang Z, Reynolds MJ, et al. Safety and immunogenicity trial in adult volunteers of a human papillomavirus 16 L1 virus-like particle vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 284-292.

31. Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Wipf GC, Christensen ND, Lee SK, Kuypers J, et al. The natural history of human papillomavirus type 16 capsid antibodies among a cohort of university women. J Infect Dis. 1996; 174: 927-936.

32. Viscidi RP, Kotloff KL, Clayman B, Russ K, Shapiro S, Shah KV. Prevalence of antibodies to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in relation to cervical HPV infection among college women. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1997; 4: 122-126.

33. Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Hughes JP, Lee SK, Kuypers J, Kiviat N, et al. Comparison of human papillomavirus types 16, 18, and 6 capsid antibody responses following incident infection. J Infect Dis. 2000; 181: 1911-1919.

34. Mariani L, Venuti A. HPV vaccine: an overview of immune response, clinical protection, and new approaches for the future. J Transl Med. 2010; 8: 105.

35. Villa LL, Ault KA, Giuliano AR, Costa RL, Petta CA, Andrade RP, et al. Immunologic responses following administration of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus Types 6, 1, 16, and 18. Vaccine. 2006; 24: 5571-5583.

36. Paavonen J, Jenkins D, Bosch FX, Naud P, Salmeron J, Wheeler CM, et al. Efficacy of a prophylactic adjuvanted bivalent L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: an interim analysis of a phase III double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007; 369: 2161-2170.

37. Schwarz TF, Leo O. Immune response to human papillomavirus after prophylactic vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine: improving upon nature. Gynecol Oncol. 2008; 110: S1-10.

38. Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler CM, Moscicki AB, Romanowski B, Roteli-Martins CM, et al. Sustained efficacy up to 4.5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: follow-up from a randomised control trial. Lancet. 2006; 367: 1247-1255.

39. Villa LL, Costa RL, Petta CA, Andrade RP, Paavonen J, Iversen OE, et al. High sustained efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus types 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine through 5 years of follow-up. Br J Cancer. 2006; 95: 1459-1466.

40. Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler C, Ferris DG, Jenkins D, Schuind A, et al. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004; 364: 1757-1765.

41. Paavonen J. Human papillomavirus infection and the development of cervical cancer and related genital neoplasias. Int J Infect Dis. 2007; 11: S3-9.

42. Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM, Perez G, Harper DM, Leodolter S, et al. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1928-1943. 

43. FUTURE II Study Group. Prophylactic efficacy of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in women with virological evidence of HPV infection. J Infect Dis. 2007; 196: 1438-1446.

44. FUTURE II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1915-1927.

45. Wheeler CM, Castellsague X, Garland SM, Szarewski A, Paavonen J, Naud P, et al. Cross-protective efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04- adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012; 13: 100-110.

46. Einstein MH, Baron M, Levin MJ, Chatterjee A, Fox B, Scholar S, et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years. Hum Vaccin. 2011; 7: 1359-1373.

47. Jit M, Chapman R, Hughes O, Choi YH. Comparing bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines: economic evaluation based on transmission model. BMJ. 2011; 343: d5775.

48. Palefsky JM, Giuliano AR, Goldstone S, Moreira ED Jr, Aranda C, Jessen H, et al. HPV vaccine against anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 1576-1585.

49. Garland SM, Skinner SR, Brotherton JM. Adolescent and young adult HPV vaccination in Australia: achievements and challenges. Prev Med. 2011; 53 Suppl 1: S29-35.

50. Munoz N, Manalastas R, Jr., Pitisuttithum P, Tresukosol D, Monsonego J, Ault K, et al. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 1, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in women aged 24-45 years: a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2009; 373: 1949-1957.

51. Castellsagué X, Muñoz N, Pitisuttithum P, Ferris D, Monsonego J, Ault K, et al. End-of-study safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 1, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in adult women 24-45 years of age. Br J Cancer. 2011; 105: 28-37.

52. National Center for I, Respiratory D. General recommendations on immunization --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 2011; 60: 1-64.

53. Kim JJ. The role of cost-effectiveness in U.S. vaccination policy. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 1760-1761.

54. Gillison ML, D’Souza G, Westra W, Sugar E, Xiao W, Begum S, et al. Distinct risk factor profiles for human papillomavirus type 16-positive and human papillomavirus type 16-negative head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 407-420.

55. Brisson M, Van de Velde N, Boily MC. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in developed countries. Public Health Genomics. 2009; 12: 343-351.

56. Haupt RM, Wheeler CM, Brown DR, Garland SM, Ferris DG, Paavonen JA, et al. Impact of an HPV6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in seropositive women with HPV16/18 infection. Int J Cancer. 2011; 129: 2632-2642.

57. Kahn JA, Burk RD. Papillomavirus vaccines in perspective. Lancet. 2007; 369: 2135-2137.

58. Szarewski A, Poppe WA, Skinner SR, Wheeler CM, Paavonen J, Naud P, et al. Efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04- adjuvanted vaccine in women aged 15-25 years with and without serological evidence of previous exposure to HPV-16/18. Int J Cancer. 2012; 131: 106-116.

59. Joura EA, Garland SM, Paavonen J, Ferris DG, Perez G, Ault KA, et al. Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data. BMJ. 2012; 344: e1401.

60. Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmeron J, Wheeler CM, Chow SN, Apter D, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet. 2009; 374: 301-314.

61. Kapeu AS, Luostarinen T, Jellum E, Dillner J, Hakama M, Koskela P, et al. Is smoking an independent risk factor for invasive cervical cancer? A nested case-control study within Nordic biobanks. Am J Epidemiol. 2009; 169: 480-488.

62. Harris T, Williams DM, Fediurek J, Scott T, Deeks SL. Adverse events following immunization in Ontario’s female school-based HPV program. Vaccine. 2014; 32: 1061-1066.

63. Takehara K, Toda T, Nishimura T, Sakane J, Kawakami Y, Mizunoe T, et al. Human papillomavirus types 52 and 58 are prevalent in uterine cervical squamous lesions from Japanese women. Patholog Res Int. 2011; 2011: 246936.

64. Nishiwaki M, Yamamoto T, Tone S, Murai T, Ohkawara T, Matsunami T, et al. Genotyping of human papillomaviruses by a novel one-step typing method with multiplex PCR and clinical applications. J Clin Microbiol. 2008; 46: 1161-1168.

Received : 03 Mar 2014
Accepted : 24 Jun 2014
Published : 26 Jun 2014
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
TEST Journal of Dentistry
ISSN : 1234-5678
Launched : 2014
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X