Archives of Stem Cell and Research

An Overview on the Biology of Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Potential

Review Article | Open Access | Volume 5 | Issue 1

  • 1. Department of Internal Medicine, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Pakistan
  • 2. Department of Internal Medicine, Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical and Dental College, Pakistan
  • 3. Department of Internal Medicine, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Pakistan
  • 4. Department of Internal Medicine, Multan Medical and Dental College, Pakistan 5 Department of Internal Medicine, Akhtar Saeed Medical And Dental College, Paki
  • 5. Department of Internal Medicine, Akhtar Saeed Medical And Dental College, Pakistan
  • 6. Department of Internal Medicine, Burhani Hospital, Pakistan
  • 7. Department of Internal Medicine, NMC Speciality Hospital, UAE
  • 8. Department of Internal Medicine, South City Hospital, Pakistan
  • 9. Department of Internal Medicine, Shifa College of Medicine, Pakistan
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Nouman Safdar, Department of Internal Medicine, Allama Iqbal Medical College, 55-B, Johar town, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, Tel: 923464702985;

Hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) has been around for many decades now and has become a household entity in the field of medicine. It has certainly enjoyed some success in improving clinical outcomes for various blood-borne malignancies and disorders. The discovery of HSCT was subsequently followed by the realization of the fact that vast reserves of stem cell therapy are still untapped. Much of the research work being conducted during recent times has shifted the focus of stem cells towards their use in providing therapeutic benefits in other areas as well. This includes using stem cell technology in diseases involving cells which are unable to undergo regeneration and repair (e.g. cardiac, nervous system and skeletal muscle disorders), the advantages of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in alleviating the need for immunosuppression, the field of regenerative medicine which reprograms cells for effective tissue repair, utilizing adult stem cells and molecules released by them, treatment of serious and sometimes fatal autoimmune diseases and understanding the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in pathogenesis of malignancies. This article focuses on these multiple aspects of stem cell technology which have great therapeutic potential and might as well be the next major breakthrough to completely revolutionize the future of medicine.


• Hematopoietic stem cell

• Pluripotent stem cell


• Canvan disease

• Human Embryonic Stem Cell


Safdar N, Sayyed Z, Ali A, Arshad MM, Amjad MA, et al. (2019) An Overview on the Biology of Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Potential. Arch Stem Cell Res 5(1): 1019.


Stemcells area population of undifferentiated cells which possess the capacity of self-renewal, are able to differentiate into other cell types and can indefinitely divide themselves to produce more of the same type of stem cells. Human pluripotent stem cells are self-replicating cells derived from human embryonic or fetal tissue that can develop into cells of the three primary germ cell layers. The identification of adult stem cells for various types of tissues, their harvestation from bone marrow, peripheral or cord blood coupled with the ability to purify and maintain such cells in vitro, offers great therapeutic potential for many diseases for which conventional therapies haven’t been quite successful. In addition, induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), a type of pluripotent stem cells can now be produced directly from mature adult cells and this has opened up a new window of opportunity for the future of medicine. By proving the presence of colony-forming cells (hematopoietic stem cells) in the mouse bone marrow, the Canadian scientists laid down the first bricks of the stem cell research foundation [1,2]. Stem cells are grouped in four broad categories: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells [3-5].


Clinical applications of stem cells

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a widely practiced entity all around the world and has been in clinical use since some time now. It has shown a greater therapeutic success compared to other stem cell therapies such as those involving muscle or neuronal stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is being used to treat many blood-borne diseases such as leukemia, polycythemia vera, aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria etc. It commonly involves three types of grafts i.e. autologous, syngenic and allogenic grafts. The procedure involves bone marrow remission, harvest cell collection either from bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells (mobilized with Colony Stimulating Factor), conditioning, stem cell rescue and regeneration. Still, nowadays, big hopes are laid in the direct differentiation of stem cells towards specialized cell types such as pancreatic islets cells, neurons and cardiac myocytes [6-8].

While we’ve certainly come a long way in treating bloodrelated disorders using hematopoietic stem cell therapy, the focus of much of stem cell research today is in utilizing the amazing capacity of stem cells in treating certain resilient diseases which are proving difficult to control. These include a variety of malignant neoplasms, non-neoplastic but sometimes life-threatening autoimmune diseases and disorders associated with damage to cells with low or no regenerative capacity such as permanent cells like cardiac, nervous system and skeletal muscle cells.

Other than hematological stem cell transplants, there are several novel instances which use this advanced procedure. Hard tissue repair e.g. bone regeneration is a highly researched area where bone fractures are treated using stem cell-based therapies. Also ligament and tendon repairs in osteoarthritis and accidental injuries, joint repairs in osteoarthritis, muscle repairs in myocardial infarctions, nervous system repairs in spinal cord injury and peripheral nerve injuries and ophthalmological diseases such as corneal ulcers are newly rising areas with a potential for successful outcomes compared to the traditional methods currently in clinical practice.

Embryonic stem cells (hESCs)

Researchers have been successful in inducing human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro, generating a possibility for effective cardiac repair. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first clinical trial involving human ESCs in 2009. The trial is being conducted by a company, ‘Geron’ and will evaluate the safety of embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes in spinal cord injury repair. GRNOPC1, Geron’s lead hESC-based therapeutic candidate, contains hESC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that have demonstrated remyelinating and nerve growth stimulating properties leading to restoration of function in animal models of acute spinal cord injury. Their goal is for the application of GRNOPC1 in subacute spinal cord injury to achieve restoration of spinal cord function by the injection of hESC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells directly into the lesion site of the patient’s injured spinal cord. Additionally, the company is now also formally exploring the utility of GRNOPC1 in other degenerative CNS disorders including Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis and Canavan disease. Hence, this technology, if successful in clinical trials has a huge potential to improve therapeutic outcomes associated with diseases involving cells, which under normal circumstances cannot undergo regeneration and repair. Transcription factors that play a key role in the molecular mechanisms of this process are: SOX2, NOTCH, WNT, PTEN, p53, Myc, as well as the ones from the HOX group [4,7,9,10], and Musashi-1 [9,10]. Multiple human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC) lines have now been discovered and banking of clinical grade cells is underway. It would potentially lead to an optimum immunological matching of recipients and donors resulting in more successful treatment outcomes. Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are known to be derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst., morulae and single blastomeres [11,12].

Fetal stem cells

The source of fetal stem cells is the fetal blood from umbilical cord and amniotic fluid, fetal tissues samples and the fetal adnexa such as fetal membranes and placenta.Fetal bone marrow, liver, kidney, lungs and also umbilical cord constitute other sources of fMSCs [13-15]. Fetal hematopoietic stem cells (fHSCs) and fetal mesenchymal stem cells (fMSCs) can thus be isolated. From the placenta, four distinct types of cells can be obtained: human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs), human chorionic mesenchymal stromal cells (hCMSCs), and human chorionic trophoblastic cells (hCTCs). Studies show that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) can differentiate towards all three germ layers, thus they are pluripotent [16].

fHSC transplantis used in patients who suffer from malignant hemopathies or metabolic storage disease as well as in the field of neuropathology (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, cerebral atrophy, Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease).

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

HiPSCs are pluripotent stem cells retaining the capacity to differentiate into cells that originate from all three germ layers. Induced pluripotent stem cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells by reprogramming them. Research related to induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) is increasing day by day as one of the advantages of transplanting iPSCs is that the patient’s own cells can be used, thereby decreasing the need for immunosuppression. Patient-specific iPSCs also provide a new tool in discovering underlying mechanisms of disease which are presently unknown. These cells could be used in the future to cure diseases like neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac and metabolic conditions.

Tissue repair through cellular reprogramming in situ using stem cell-based therapy

Stem Cell-based therapy may play a significant role in regenerative medicine in future as well. It uses the principle of converting adult cells into other cell types for tissue repair and regeneration. Although isolated examples of adult cell reprogramming exist, there is a lack of general understanding about using this technology in a controlled and organized manner. This alternative strategy is used to direct cellular reprogramming without reverting to a pluripotent stem cell state. The basic principle is to stimulate a patient’s endogenous stem cells in order to divide or differentiate, as would naturally occur during healing of a skin wound. A study has recently shown that exocrine cells of the pancreas in adult mice can be reprogrammed to become functional, insulin-producing cells which closely resemble endocrine beta cells using expression of transcription factors that regulate pancreatic development. The induced beta-cells cannot be differentiated from endogenous islet beta-cells based on their size, shape and histological features. The reprogrammed cells express genes essential for normal beta-cell function and can be used to treat hyperglycaemia as they secrete insulin and cause local vasculature remodeling. The concept of repairing tissue through a process of cellular reprogramming in situ using stem cell-based therapy is an area worth further exploration.

Adult stem cells

The main types of adult stem cells include hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).More recently, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy (HSCT) has been used as a form of high dose immunosuppressant in a select number of patients with autoimmune diseases that are resistant to standard therapies. Studies conducted previously on animal models have validated the use of HSCT in patients with this spectrum of disorders. Two randomised control trials have confirmed that HSCT is superior to monthly cyclophosphamide in treating systemic sclerosis with a highly significant diseasefree and overall survival benefit shown in the Autologous Stem cell Transplantation International Scleroderma trial. Over 2000 patients worldwide with autoimmune conditions have been treated with HSCT with the two most common indications being systemic sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. This kind of treatment is used in patients who suffer from malignant hemopathies or metabolic storage disease that can benefit of allogenic transplant of hematopoietic stem cells [17,18].

MSCs are adult multipotent SCs that can be isolated not only from bone marrow stroma [19], but also from other tissues such as adipose tissue [20], neural tissue [21], olfactory mucosa [22], heart tissue [23], skin [24], gingiva [25], and many others. Classically, MSCs exhibit CD105, CD73 and CD90 as specific cell surface markers and lack expression of CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79 alpha or CD19 and HLA-DR surface molecules.

The possibility of using adult stem cells of various types and molecules they release e.g. microRNA in treating certain diseases is being highly researched as well. The advantage being that it avoids the issues associated with ESCs and iPSCs and is easier, more efficacious and less costly to develop and deliver to the patient. These molecules fit better into the current drug development model compared to the cell-based therapies leading to better therapeutic outcomes. Currently, there are two trials approved by Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) regarding the use of neural stem cells in patients that suffer from Parkinson’s disease and spinal cord injury [27,28].

Cancer stem cells (CSCs)

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as cancer cells (found within tumors) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells such as self-renewal and can give rise to various cell types that comprise the tumor. They are tumorigenic (tumorforming) and have been identified in multiple cancers e.g. blood, breast, lung, colon, pancreatic, CNS, skin, prostate and ovarian cancers. CSCs are often linked with tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy which lead to the failure of standard therapies. Currently, most available therapies target the fast-growing tumor mass but not the slow-dividing cancer stem cells. Theoretically speaking if we are able to eradicate the origin of tumors i.e. CSCs we can quite possibly improve cancer survival, decrease recurrence rates and may even completely cure cancer patients. One possible method to achieve this is by producing drugs that selectively target cancer stem cells only, thereby removing the root of the tumor and causing less collateral damage to the patient’s normal tissues as well. The development of specific therapies targeting CSCs provides a new hope for cancer treatment and cure especially in patients with metastatic diseases which, generally speaking have poor outcomes.



A brief summary of some of the challenges faced by researchers include stringent regulations, high expense, limited funding, mismatch in cost vs benefit compared to conventional therapies, safety improvements in the treatments, high failure rate of clinical trials, recruiting patients, need for new, high level clinical infrastructures and research centers and regulatory diversity across countries. Creation of unrealistic expectations and public controversies have played a part as well as denoted by the fact that stem cell based therapy has become questionable in relation to using this technology for human cloning.


Stem cell technology is a vast field of medicine, much of which is still in need of being discovered. Based on our current understanding and progression in this area, stem cells have abundant potential to provide medical advancements in future. A lot of research and clinical work is already underway to discover new ways of fully exploiting multiple aspects of stem cells in order to provide optimal therapeutic potential for humans. It is a ray of light for currently incurable diseases such as cancers, autoimmune diseases and cardiac, nervous system and muscular disorders. The goal of providing cure for these diseases is only possible if the medical community remains headstrong in facing and overcoming challenges which hinder progress. It is extremely important to continue the work being conducted on this budding technology which certainly promises to grow into a giant trunk with branches extending into multiple fields of medicine in future.

  1.  Becker AJ, McCulloch EA, Till JE. Cytological demonstration of the clonal nature of spleen colonies derived from transplanted mouse marrow cells. Nature. 1963; 197: 452-454.
  2. Siminovitch L, McCulloch EA, Till JE. The distribution of colony-forming cells among spleen colonies. J Cell Physiol. 1963; 62: 327-336.
  3. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS, et al. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science. 1998; 282: 1145-1147.
  4. Gucciardo L, Lories R, Ochsenbein-Kölble N, Done’E, Zwijsen A, Deprest J. Fetal mesenchymal stem cells: isolation, properties and potential use in perinatology and regenerative medicine. BJOG. 2009; 116: 166-172.
  5.  Latsinik NV, Sidorovich SIu, Fridenshte?n AIa. Effect of bone marrow trypsinization on the efficiency of fibroblast colony formation in monolayer cultures. Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1981; 92: 356-358.
  6. Kattman SJ, Witty AD, Gagliardi M, Dubois NC, Niapour M, Hotta A, et al. Stage-specific optimization of activin/nodal and BMP signaling promotes cardiac differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cell lines. Cell Stem Cell. 2011; 8: 228-240.
  7. Konagaya S, Iwata H. Microencapsulation of dopamine neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015; 1850: 22-32.
  8. Sui L, Geens M, Sermon K, Bouwens L, Mfopou JK. Role of BMP signaling in pancreatic progenitor differentiation from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cell Rev. 2013; 9: 569-577.
  9. Olsson E, Honeth G, Bendhal PO, Saal LH, Gruvberger-Saal S, Ringner M, et al. CD44 isoforms are heterogeneously expressed in breast cancer and correlate with tumor subtypes and cancer stem cell markers. BMC Cancer. 2011; 11: 418.
  10. Okano H, Kawahara H, Toriya M, Nakao K, Shibata S, Imai T. Function of RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 in stem cells. Exp Cell Res. 2005; 306: 349-356.
  11. Strelchenko N, Verlinsky O, Kukharenko V, Verlinsky Y. Morula-derived human embryonic stem cells. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004; 9: 623-629.
  12. Klimanskaya I, Chung Y, Becker S, Lu SJ, Lanza R. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells from single blastomeres. Nat Protoc. 2007; 2: 1963-1972.
  13. Campagnoli C, Roberts IA, Kumar S, Bennett PR, Bellantuono I, Fisk NM. Identification of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in human first-trimester fetal blood, liver, and bone marrow. Blood. 2001; 98: 2396-2402.
  14.  In ‘t Anker PS, Scherjon SA, Kleijburg-van der Keur C, de Groot-Swings GM, Claas FH, Fibbe WE, et al. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells of fetal or maternal origin from human placenta. Stem Cells. 2004; 22: 1338-1345.
  15.  In ’t Anker PS, Noort WA, Scherjon SA, Kleijburg-van der Keur C, Kruisselbrink AB, van Bezooijen RL, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells in human second-trimester bone marrow, liver, lung, and spleen exhibit a similar immunophenotype but a heterogeneous multilineage differentiation potential. Haematologica. 2003; 88: 845-852.
  16. Akle CA, Adinolfi M, Welsh KI, Leibowitz S, McColl I. Immunogenicity of human amniotic epithelial cells after transplantation into volunteers. Lancet. 1981; 2: 1003-1005
  17. Auerbach AD, Liu Q, Ghosh R, Pollack MS, Douglas GW, Broxmeyer HE. Prenatal identification of potential donors for umbilical cord blood transplantation for Fanconi anemia. Transfusion. 1990; 30: 682-687.
  18. Gluckman E, Devergie A, Dutreix J. Radiosensitivity in Fanconi anaemia: application to the conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Br J Haematol. 1983; 54: 431-440.
  19. Méndez-Ferrer S, Michurina TV, Ferraro F, Mazloom AR, Macarthur BD, Lira SA, et al. Mesenchymal and haematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche. Nature. 2010; 466: 829-834.
  20. Shiratsuki S, Terai S, Murata Y, Takami T, Yamamoto N, Fujisawa K, et al. Enhanced survival of mice infused with bone marrow-derived as compared with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Hepatol Res. 2015;
  21. Calzolari F, Michel J, Baumgart EV, Theis F, Götz M, Ninkovic J. Fast clonal expansion and limited neural stem cell self-renewal in the adult subependymal zone. Nat Neurosci. 2015; 18: 490-492.
  22. Johnstone SA, Liley M, Dalby MJ, Barnett SC. Comparison of human olfactory and skeletal MSCs using osteogenic nanotopography to demonstrate bone-specific bioactivity of the surfaces. Acta Biomater. 2015; 13: 266-276.
  23. Mayfield AE, Tilokee EL, Davis DR. Resident cardiac stem cells and their role in stem cell therapies for myocardial repair. Can J Cardiol. 2014; 30: 1288-1298.
  24. Mehrabi M, Mansouri K, Hosseinkhani S, Yarani R, Yari K, Bakhtiari M, et al. Differentiation of human skin-derived precursor cells into functional islet-like insulin-producing cell clusters. In vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2015; 51: 595-603.
  25. Fournier BP, Larjava H, Häkkinen L. Gingiva as a source of stem cells with therapeutic potential. Stem Cells Dev. 2013; 22: 3157-3177.
  26. Mariano ED, Teixeira MJ, Marie SK, Lepski G. Adult stem cells in neural repair: Current options, limitations and perspectives. World J Stem Cells. 2015; 7: 477-482. 
  27. Schroeder J, Kueper J, Leon K, Liebergall M. Stem cells for spine surgery. World J Stem Cells. 2015; 7: 186-194.

Safdar N, Sayyed Z, Ali A, Arshad MM, Amjad MA, et al. (2019) An Overview on the Biology of Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Potential. Arch Stem Cell Res 5(1): 1019.

Received : 15 Oct 2018
Accepted : 07 Feb 2019
Published : 10 Feb 2019
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X