International Journal of Plant Biology & Research

Biogenic Derived Ag and Zno Nanoparticles Using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Fruit Extract and its Antibacterial Potential

Research Article | Open Access | Volume 11 | Issue 1

  • 1. Department of Botany, Karnataka State Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Karnataka, India
  • 2. Department of Botany, Bhaurao Kakatkar College, Karnataka, India
  • 3. Department of Botany, Jagadamba Arts, and Science College, Hittinahalli LT, Karnataka, India
+ Show More - Show Less
Corresponding Authors
Azharuddin B Daphedar, Department of Botany, Karnataka State Akkamahadevi Women’s University, Karnataka, India

In this study, we report the synthesis of Ag and ZnO Nanoparticles (NPs) produced from the fruit extract of C. guianensis. Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) have extensive applications in various areas of science and technology. These NPs were characterized using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The UV-Vis absorption spectra generated strong characteristic peaks of AgNPs (370nm) and ZnO-NPs (374nm). FTIR spectrum analysis was conducted to validate the use of phytochemicals in the reduction, capping and stabilization of Ag and ZnO-NPs. XRD spectra were examined to ensure phase purity, crystalline nature and size of the AgNPs (42nm) and ZnO NPs (26nm) respectively. Finally, the ultrastructural and nanomechanical properties of the NPs were studied via AFM analysis. Besides, this study determines antibacterial efficacy of Ag and ZnO-NPs fabricated from C. guianensis fruit extract against B. subtilis and E. coli bacterial strains. The B. subtilis had highest inhibition zone activity than E. coli and it was found to be AgNPs (12.02 ± 0.32 mm) and ZnO-NPs (11.18 ± 0.34 mm) respectively. This study demonstrated a significant potential for the use of these particles in biomedical applications due to their remarkable antibacterial activity.


• Silver;

• Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

• Couroupita guianensis

• Characterization

• Antibacterial Activity


Daphedar AB, Hujaratti RB, Kaddipudi PJ, Kolar F. (2023) Biogenic Derived Ag and Zno Nanoparticles Using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Fruit Extract and its Antibacterial Potential. Int J Plant Biol Res 11(1): 1136.


Couroupita guianensis Aubl. belonging to the family Lecythidaceae, is well known for its therapeutic and ornamental values. It is a fast growing deciduous tree, widely cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world [1]. Almost all parts of this species namely roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds have been reported to possess various medicinal properties, it is used to cure cold, stomach ache, malaria, hypertension, tumours, pain, and inflammatory processes [2]. These properties of the species have been attributed to the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, couroupitine, indirubin, and isatin [3]. Plant extracts have captivated the attention of researchers because of their simplicity, low cost, and quick reaction time, as well as their capacity to reduce metal ions to metal nanoparticles [4]. Additionally, plant extracts comprises a wide variety of active compounds which assist in the reducing and stabilizing process and also act as templates for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles [5]. The biosynthesizing precursors are not only safe to handle but the process easily renders itself to scaling up without the use of energy, high temperatures or toxic compounds thus providing an environmentally friendly alternate to physical and chemical methods [6].

The biosynthesized nanoparticles are idyllic candidates for medical applications, one of the most imperative property of such nanoparticles is antimicrobial activity. The adaptability of nanoparticles in rendering themselves to several applications is presently being discovered. Topmost in the list are silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles which find applications in medicine, sensors, renewable energies, environmental remediation, cosmetology, clothing, bio-therapeutic devices, surface disinfection and antimicrobial applications [6]. This could be attributed to their nanoscale size and high surface area to volume ratio which gives them enhanced biological, physical, and chemical properties as compared to their large scale counter parts [7]. Many green silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles have been reported for antibacterial activity [8-11]. Also supportive studies on plant derived silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles conclude that biogenic nanomaterials are biocompatible and an effective therapeutic agent against bacterial, fungal infections, and cancer treatment as well. The appearance of nanoparticles as new antimicrobial agents has boosted up the research for tackling these superbugs. As nanoparticles target the bacterial cell through multiple pathways, it becomes difficult for bacteria to escape from these magical agents, thus exhibiting antibacterial potential [12]. The fruits of cannonball tree are apparently rich in alkaloid, Couroupitine A (tryptanthrin), Couroupitine B (indirubin), malic acid, isocitric acid, stigmasterol, campesterol, hopane, rutin, quercetin, kaempherol, farmaricetin, luteolin and ursolic acid [3]. Thus, in the current study silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using fruit extracts of Couroupita guianens is as precursors and assessed for its antibacterial activity.



Silver nitrate (AgNO3 ), zinc nitrate (ZnNO3 ) and other analytical reagents are purchased from Hi-media laboratories Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai, India. Nutrient agar media was also procured from Sigma Aldrich.

Collection and Extraction Process

The fruit of Couroupita guianensis (Figure 1)

a) Habit of C. guianensis, b) AgNPs c) Zn)-NPss.

Figure 1: a) Habit of C. guianensis, b) AgNPs c) Zn)-NPss.

was collected from the Botanical garden of Karnatak University, Campus, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. The collected diseased free fruits were washed with running tap-water to remove unwanted dirt’s on fruits. The fruit material chopped and converted into fine powder through electric grinder. The powder (20gm) was added to 80mL of deionized water and heated for 30 minutes at 60?C. The fruit extract (aqueous) was filtered through whatman No.1 filter paper and preserved in refrigerator at 4?C for further experimental studies.

Synthesis of Ag and ZnO-NPs

Silver (Ag) and zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized in accordance with the previously established procedure [13]. For about 90ml of (1mM) silver nitrate is added to 250ml of Erlenmeyer flask containing 10ml of aqueous fruit extract. The reaction mixture becomes yellowish and later converted into dark brown color within 15 minutes indicating that the formation of silver nanoparticles (Figure 1). To synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles, 85mL of (1mM) zinc nitrate is mixed with 15mL of fruit extract resulting the solution of reaction mixture was changed from light yellow to light brown in color which indicates the formation of ZnO nanoparticles by reduction of zinc ions (Figure 1).

Characterization of Ag and ZnO-NPs

The bioreduction and formation of Ag-ZnO nanoparticles were monitored visually by observing the color change. The aqueous extract of nanoparticles was determined absorbance spectrum by UV-Visible spectroscopy (Hitachi, U-3310) with 0.1nm resolution in the 200 to 800nm scale. The colloidal solutions were centrifuged (Remi R-8C) at 10,000 revolutions per minute for 10 minutes; the suspension was re-dispersed two to three times with distilled water and then left to dry in an oven until a fine granular powder was achieved. The fine powder of Ag-ZnO nanoparticles were subjected to FTIR (Nicolet, 5700) analysis wavelength ranges between 400 to 4000cm-1, to determine involvement of biomolecules for reduction, capping and stabilization of nanoparticles. The crystalline structure and phase purity of nanoparticles elucidate by X-ray diffractometer (RigaKu Smartlab SE) in the 2θ range between 30 to 80?C. Morphological structure and size of the nanoparticles were determined by AFM analysis (Nanosurf Easyscan 2).

Preparation of Bacterial Strains

Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis MTCC 736 (B. subtilis) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli MTCC 723, 1554 (E. coli) were obtained from the CSIR Laboratory, New Delhi and used as test organisms. Muller-Hinton nutrient broth media was then prepared to facilitate the growth of these bacterial strains. The bacteria were cultured and then grown at 37?C for 18 hours.

Preparation of Ag and ZnO Nanoparticles The crystalline powder of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles (0.01gm) were dissolved in 10ml of DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) solution and vortexed. The nanoparticles solution is kept at 4?C for 24 hrs until further analysis.

In-vitro Susceptibility

Test For in-vitro antibacterial testing, Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were utilized via a disc diffusion method against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The Muller-Hinton agar media was first prepared and poured into culture plates, before the bacterial strains were spread across the surfaces evenly using a cotton swab. Susceptibility testing was then conducted with 6mm sterile discs being used in the process. The discs were loaded with 5µL of C. guianensis fruit extract (used as a blank) and solution containing Ag-ZnO nanoparticles mediated fruit extract, respectively. The discs were then placed on culture plates and incubated for 24 hours at 37?C. After the incubation period, the zones of inhibition were observed and measured in millimeters (mm).

Statistical Analysis

The data were expressed in One-way ANOVAs using IBM statistical software SPSS version 20. The triplicate data were analyzed by Duncan’s multiple range tests and p ? 0.05 value was considered significant.


The synthesis of Ag-ZnO nanoparticles using fruit extract of C. guianensis was confirmed by the colour change of the reaction mixture from colorless to dark brown which can be visually detected. This colour change inferred the formation of nanoparticles, due to the excitation of surface plasmon resonance, which was further confirmed by recording the UV-visible absorption spectrum. The maximum absorbance peak was observed at 370nm and 374nm for silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles respectively (Figure 2).

UV-vis absorption Spectrscopy analysis a) AgNPs b) ZnO-NPs synthesized from fruit extract of Couroupita guianensis.

Figure 2: UV-vis absorption Spectrscopy analysis a) AgNPs b) ZnO-NPs synthesized from fruit extract of Couroupita guianensis.

The SPR pattern is dependent on the characteristics of the specific metal particles, their size and shape, as well as the dielectric properties of the medium used for the synthesis and the inter nanoparticle coupling interactions [14]. The obtained results are in consistent with the previous verdicts where silver oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Persicaria hydropiper and Deverra tortuosa displayed UV-vis absorbance maximum at this wavelength [15,16].

FTIR spectrum is a potent analytical tool used to identify biomolecules and detect functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Figure 3).

FTIR spectrum analysis a) AgNPs b) Zinc oxide synthesized using fruit extracts of Couroupita guianensis.

Figure 3: FTIR spectrum analysis a) AgNPs b) Zinc oxide synthesized using fruit extracts of Couroupita guianensis.

The spectrum showed different absorptions peaks at 3411.23, 2921.35, 2850.64, 1627.46, 1462.29, 1384.34, and 753.23 cm-1. The intense band 3411.23cm-1 is associated to stretching of (OH) hydroxyl group and vibration of phenol and alcoholic group [17]. The peak 2921.35 and 2850.64cm-1 corresponds to the (C-H) stretching of aromatic compounds [18]. The band at 1627.46cm-1 was assigned to stretching of carbonyl (C-O) group. The small peak 1462.29cm-1 was assigned to C-O- stretching vibration mode of phytochemicals like water soluble components of phenolic. The band 1384.34cm-1 was corresponds to C=C stretching of aromatic amines [19]. The weaker band 1073.44cm-1 arose due to the C-N stretching vibrations of amines. The band 753.23 is assigned to the bending vibration in the S-H moiety bonded to the CH2 group. These well-known phytochemical groups like proteins, amino acids, carboxyl group, aromatic amines, and phenolics can bind and stabilize the AgNPs.

An FTIR spectroscopy analysis was conducted to identify the functional groups associated with the formation of ZnO nanoparticles (Figure 3). The obtained spectrum peak 3416.50cm 1could be due to the OH stretching or protein (N-H) amide A [20]. The intense band 2924.24cm-1 corresponds to the C-H stretching of alkyl groups [21]. The weak band 2853.63cm-1 indicates the presence of H-C=O:C-H stretching of aldehydes. The observed peaks 1745.42cm-1 were assigned to stretching of esters. The intense peak 1597.30cm-1 was attributed to the N-H bending of amides. The spectrum bands occurs in between 1300 to 1600cm-1 were corresponds to carboxyl groups C=O, C-N and C-H [22]. The absorption peak 1041.70cm-1 may be due to the presence of C-O-C asymmetric stretching of ester group. The peaks appear in the range between 600 to 400cm-1 may be assigned to the stretching Zn-O bands [23]. The evidence suggests that the formation of ZnO nanoparticles is a result of the interaction between phenolic compounds.

The purity and crystalline structure of the synthesized AgNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis (Figure 4).

XRD spectrum analysis a) AgNPs b) ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by fruit extract C. guianensis.

Figure 4: XRD spectrum analysis a) AgNPs b) ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by fruit extract C. guianensis.

The XRD pattern of AgNPs synthesized from fruit extract of C. guianensis shows different bragg’s peaks at 2θ angle such as 37.74?, 44.90?, 64.32?, and 77.31? which indexed lattice planes (111), (200), (220) and (311) respectively. These assigned high peaks in XRD analysis indicated active silver composition with the indexing [24]. The resultant data matched with the data base JCPDS, file No: 04-0783. The calculated FWHM intense peak (111) showed average size of the AgNPs which was calculated by using Debye Sherrer’s equation and it was found to be 42nm. Our result is strongly supported with the result of [24] synthesized AgNPs by leaf extract Allophylus serratus.

XRD spectrum analysis of ZnO nanoparticles was determined using fruit mediated extract of C. guianensis. The XRD pattern shows different diffraction peaks at 32.14?, 34.98?, 46.61?, 65.10? attributes to (111), (200), (220) and (311) miller indices of ZnO nanoparticles respectively (Figure 4). The small and narrow peak of XRD peaks represents growth of crystal nuclei and nucleation. The observed crystalline structure of ZnO nanoparticles matched with JCPDS file No. 36-1451. The average size of ZnO nanoparticles was estimated to be 26nm, computed from the Debye Scherrer equation and the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) highest intense peak. Recent reports have shown similar results in biogenic ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf extract [25].

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) determines the size, shape and length of the AgNPs. AFM image showed size of the AgNPs was found in the range between 20 to 50nm (Figure 5).

AgNPs synthesized by aqueous fruit extract of C. guinancis, a) Two-dimensional, b) Three- dimensional, c) Particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles.

Figure 5: AgNPs synthesized by aqueous fruit extract of C. guinancis, a) Two-dimensional, b) Three- dimensional, c) Particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles.

The three dimensional image of the AgNPs represents height of nanoparticles is 11.2nm and 100nm width. These particles are poydispersed and spherical in shape. Similar size and shape of the AgNPs was reported by [26] using Trichosanthes tricuspidata plant extract. The obtained ZnO-NPs from fruit extract of C. guinancis were subjected to AFM analysis. It is technique used to determine size, and shape of the nanoparticles. (Figure 7) represents the particle size which was found to be 30 to 75nm. The 3D image (Figure 5) represents length (15.3nm) and width 100nm. These nanoparticles are monodispersed and spherical in shape.

As shown in (Figure 6,7),

Well diffusion method on different concentrations of AgNPs against B. subtilis and E. coli strains a) a. Fruit extract (negative control), b. AgNO3 (negative  control), c. 25µg/ml, d. 50µg/ml e. 100µg/ml respectively. Stastically the results were found to be p < 0.05.

Figure 6: Well diffusion method on different concentrations of AgNPs against B. subtilis and E. coli strains a) a. Fruit extract (negative control), b. AgNO3 (negative control), c. 25µg/ml, d. 50µg/ml e. 100µg/ml respectively. Stastically the results were found to be p < 0.05.

Well diffusion method on different concentrations of ZnO-Nps against B. subtilis and E. coli strains a) a. Fruit extract (negative control), b. ZnNO3 (negative  control), c. 25µg/ml, d. 50µg/ml e. 100µg/ml respectively. Stastically the results were found to be p < 0.05.

Figure 7: Well diffusion method on different concentrations of ZnO-Nps against B. subtilis and E. coli strains a) a. Fruit extract (negative control), b. ZnNO3 (negative control), c. 25µg/ml, d. 50µg/ml e. 100µg/ml respectively. Stastically the results were found to be p < 0.05.

the antibacterial activity of Ag and ZnO-NPs produced from fruit extract of C. guinancis evaluated against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The well diffusion method can be used to determine the size (in millimeters) of the inhibition zones for bacterial colonies. The suspension of Ag and ZnO NPs were treated separately with different concentrations viz. 25, 50, 100µg/ml and fruit extract, AgNO3 as negative control. The diameter of the inhibition zone for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were respectively measured at 7.3 ± 0.5, 9.31 ± 0.3, 12.02 ± 0.32mm and 6.2 ± 0.4, 7.16 ± 0.48, 10.06 ± 0.16mm while the corresponding values for ZnO-NPs were 6.23 ± 0.17, 8.15 ± 0.6, 10.08 ± 0.31mm and 5.8 ± 0.25, 8.3 ± 0.18, 11.18 ± 0.34mm respectively; showing that an increasing concentration of silver and ZnO-NPs produced a greater inhibition zone in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli respectively. The results of the study revealed that AgNPs demonstrated the strongest zone of inhibition activity when compared to ZnO-NPs. Similar results was reported by [27] using green synthesized Ag and ZnO nanocomposite produced from leaf extract of Rumex Crispus.

Previous studies have revealed that colloidal solutions of AgNPs are highly effective against S. aureus compared to E. coli [28]. Furthermore, metallic nanoparticles have shown promising results in combating antibacterial agents. The mechanism behind the antibacterial efficacy of Ag and ZnO-NPs is thought to be mainly due to interacting with the surface membrane of bacteria, ultimately leading to cytoplasmic leakage and rupture [29,30]. The Ag and Zn ions have been shown to initiate the generation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), disrupt ATP synthesis, denature protein in the cells, destabilize ribosome’s, affect mitochondrial function, imbalance metabolic activity and damage bacterial DNA, leading to cell death [31-33]. It has also been reported that when the bacterial surface membrane comes in contact with Ag and ZnO-NPs, the bacterial cell wall changes its shape and becomes inactive, leading to bacterial cellular dysfunction and eventually cell death or necrosis [34].


The biosynthesis of Ag and ZnO-NPs from the fruit extract of Couroupita guianensis is a green approach that has numerous benefits, including its simplicity, efficiency, affordability, economic sustainability and ecological friendliness. The optical, ultrastructural, and morphological properties of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized. The antibacterial efficacy of both Ag and ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated against Gram positive (B. subtilis) and Gram negative (E. coli) bacterial strains and was found to be dose dependent. This study demonstrated a significant potential for the use of these particles in biomedical applications due to their remarkable antibacterial activity.


1. Sumathi S, Anuradha R. Couroupita guianensis Aubl: An updated review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Asian Pharmacy Pharmacol. 2017; 3(1): 1-8.

2. Kumar CS, Naresh G, Sudheer V, Veldi N, Anurag AE. A Short Review on Therapeutic Uses Of Couroupita Guianensis Aubl. Int. Res. J Pharm Appl Sci. 2011; 1: 105-108.

1. Anna Sheba L, Anuradha V. An updated review on Couroupita guianensis Aubl: a sacred plant of India with myriad medicinal properties. J Herbmed Pharmacol. 2020; 9(1): 1-11.

2. Ishak NM, Kamarudin S, Timmiati S. Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles via plant extracts: An overview. Mater Res Express. 2019; 6(11): 112004.

3. Kuppusamy P, Yusoff MM, Maniam GP, Govindan N. Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives and their new avenues in pharmacological applications - An updated report. Saudi Pharm J. 2016; 24(4): 473-484. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.11.013. Epub 2014 Dec 8. PMID: 27330378; PMCID: PMC4908060.

4. Kyomuhimbo HD, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Derese S, Feleni U, Iwuoha EI. Silver–zinc oxide nanocomposite antiseptic from the extract of Bidenspilosa. SN Appl. Sci. 2019; 1: 681.

5. Khan I, Saeed K, Khan I. Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities. Arab J. Chem. 2019; 12(7): 908-931.

6. Salem W, Leitner DR, Zingl FG, Schratter G, Prassl R, Goessler W, et al. Antibacterial activity of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli. Int J Med Microbiol. 2015; 305(1): 85-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.11.005. Epub 2014 Nov 11. PMID: 25466205; PMCID: PMC4300426.

7. Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise. J Adv Res. 2016; 7(1): 17-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2015.02.007. Epub 2015 Mar 9. PMID: 26843966; PMCID: PMC4703479.

8. Gupta M, Tomar RS, Kaushik S, Mishra RK, Sharma D. Effective Antimicrobial Activity of Green ZnO Nano Particles of Catharanthus roseus. Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 2030. doi: 10.3389/ fmicb.2018.02030. PMID: 30233518; PMCID: PMC6129596.

9. Nabi J, Zahra K, Elias D, Akbar A, Atefeh Z, Narges C. Investigating in-vitro antimicrobial activity, biosynthesis, and characterization of silver nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles, and silver-zinc oxide nanocomposites using Pistacia Atlantica Resin. Materials Today Commun. 2021; 27: 102457.

10. Irfan M, Munir H, Ismail H. Moringa oleifera gum based silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles: green synthesis, characterization and their antibacterial potential against MRSA. Biomater Res. 2021; 25(1): 17. doi: 10.1186/s40824-021-00219-5. PMID: 33964968; PMCID: PMC8106117.

11. Daphedar AB, Kakkalameli SB, Melappa G, Taranath TC, Srinivasa C, Shivamallu C, et al. Genotoxic assay of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract of Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson: A comparative study. Pharmaco Mag. 2021; 17(1): S114-S121.

12. Hemlata, Meena PR, Singh AP, Tejavath KK. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Cucumis prophetarum Aqueous Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activity against Cancer Cell Lines. ACS Omega. 2020; 5(10): 5520-5528. doi: 10.1021/ acsomega.0c00155. PMID: 32201844; PMCID: PMC7081640.

13. Ghadir A, Aftab K, Asim S, Aiyeshah A, Muhammad Q, Iffat N, et al. Phytogenic-mediated silver nanoparticles using Persicaria hydropiper extracts and its catalytic activity against multidrug resistant bacteria. Arab J Chem. 2022; 15(9): 104053.

14. Selim YA, Azb MA, Ragab I, H M Abd El-Azim M. Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Deverra tortuosa and their Cytotoxic Activities. Sci Rep. 2020; 10(1): 3445. doi: 10.1038/ s41598-020-60541-1. PMID: 32103090; PMCID: PMC7044426.

15. Yuan CG, Huo C, Gui B, Cao WP. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities. IET Nanobiotechnol. 2017; 11(5): 523-530. doi: 10.1049/ iet-nbt.2016.0183. PMID: 28745284; PMCID: PMC8676154.

16. Jyoti K, Mamta B, Ajeet S. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. Leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics. J Radi Res Appl Sci. 2016; 9(3): 217-227.

17. Arulkumar S, Sabesan M. Rapid preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle by bioreduction and their characterization. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010; 2(4): 233-236. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.69112. PMID: 21808573; PMCID: PMC3141133.

18. Khalafi T, Buazar F, Ghanemi K. Phycosynthesis and Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles toward Organosulfur Pollutants. Sci Rep. 2019; 9(1): 6866. doi: 10.1038/ s41598-019-43368-3. PMID: 31053730; PMCID: PMC6499781.

19. Suba S, Vijayakumar S, Vidhya E, Punitha VN, Nilavukkarasi M. Microbial mediated synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles derived from Lactobacillus spp: Characterizations, antimicrobial and biocompatibility efficiencies. Sensors Inter. 2021; 2: 100104.

20. Udhayan S, Udayakumar R, Sagayaraj R, Gurusamy K. Evaluation of Bioactive Potential of a Tragia involucrata Healthy Leaf Extract @ ZnO Nanoparticles. Bio Nano Sci. 2021; 11: 703-719.

21. Jayachandran A, T R A, Nair AS. Green synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Cayratia pedata leaf extract. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2021; 26: 100995. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2021.100995. PMID: 33898767; PMCID: PMC8055550.

22. Jemal K, Sandeep BV, Pola S. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Allophylus serratus Leaf and Leaf Derived Callus Extracts Mediated Silver Nanoparticles. J. Nanomat. 2017; 4213275.

23. Iqbal J, Abbasi BA, Yaseen T, Zahra SA, Shahbaz A, Shah SA, et al. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaf extracts and their multiple in vitro biological applications. Sci Rep. 2021; 11(1): 20988. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99839-z. PMID: 34697404; PMCID: PMC8545962.

24. Yuvarajan R, Natarajan D, Ragavendran C, Jayavel R. Photoscopic characterization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Trichosanthes tricuspidata and its antibacterial potential. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015; 149: 300-307. doi: 10.1016/j. jphotobiol.2015.04.032. Epub 2015 May 22. PMID: 26044176.

25. Bayisa YM, Bullo TA, Hundie KB, Akuma DA, Gizachew DG, Bultum MS. Ecofriendly green synthesis and characterization of silver zinc oxide nanocomposite using the aqueous leaf extract of Rumex Crispus: Evaluation of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Heliyon. 2023; 9(5): e16063. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e16063. PMID: 37215886; PMCID: PMC10196513.

26. Chartarrayawadee W, Phattaraporn C, Juthaporn S, Thearum R, Phichaya K, Pitak N, et al. Green synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Lysimachia foenum-graecum Hance extract and their antibacterial activity. Green Process Synth. 2020; 9: 107-118.

27. Ogunyemi SO, Abdallah Y, Zhang M, Fouad H, Hong X, Ibrahim E, et al. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using different plant extracts and their antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1): 341-352. doi: 10.1080/21691401.2018.1557671. PMID: 30691311.

28. Ghani S, Rafiee B, Bahrami S, Mokhtari A, Aghamiri S, Yarian F. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Plant Extracts of Vitex Agnus Castus L: An Ecofriendly Approach to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance. Int J Prev Med. 2022; 13: 133. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm. ijpvm_140_22. PMID: 36452468; PMCID: PMC9704479.

29. Xu J, Huang Y, Zhu S, Abbes N, Jing X, Zhang L. A review of the green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using plant extracts and their prospects for application in antibacterial textiles. J Eng Fib and Fabrics. 2021; 16.

30. Imade EE, Timothy OA, Ayomide EF, Damian CO, Olubukola OB. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using plantain peel extracts and the evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Sci African. 2022; 16: e01152.

31. Verma RK, Varad N, Anuj S, Badal M, Poonam K, Sneha L, et al. Green Synthesized Nanoparticles Targeting Antimicrobial Activities. Briac. 2023; 13(5): 469.

32. Shamshad S, Jamshaid R, Ihsan-ul-haq, Naseem I, Saif UA. Synthesis of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles using Ficus palmata - Forssk leaf extracts and assessment of antibacterial activity. Environ Eng Res. 2021; 26(6): 200454.

Daphedar AB, Hujaratti RB, Kaddipudi PJ, Kolar F. (2023) Biogenic Derived Ag and Zno Nanoparticles Using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Fruit Extract and its Antibacterial Potential. Int J Plant Biol Res 11(1): 1136.

Received : 17 Oct 2023
Accepted : 10 Nov 2023
Published : 14 Nov 2023
Annals of Otolaryngology and Rhinology
ISSN : 2379-948X
Launched : 2014
JSM Schizophrenia
Launched : 2016
Journal of Nausea
Launched : 2020
JSM Internal Medicine
Launched : 2016
JSM Hepatitis
Launched : 2016
JSM Oro Facial Surgeries
ISSN : 2578-3211
Launched : 2016
Journal of Human Nutrition and Food Science
ISSN : 2333-6706
Launched : 2013
JSM Regenerative Medicine and Bioengineering
ISSN : 2379-0490
Launched : 2013
JSM Spine
ISSN : 2578-3181
Launched : 2016
Archives of Palliative Care
ISSN : 2573-1165
Launched : 2016
JSM Nutritional Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3203
Launched : 2017
Annals of Neurodegenerative Disorders
ISSN : 2476-2032
Launched : 2016
Journal of Fever
ISSN : 2641-7782
Launched : 2017
JSM Bone Marrow Research
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2016
JSM Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN : 2578-3173
Launched : 2014
Journal of Autoimmunity and Research
ISSN : 2573-1173
Launched : 2014
JSM Arthritis
ISSN : 2475-9155
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Neck Cancer-Cases and Reviews
ISSN : 2573-1610
Launched : 2016
JSM General Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2573-1564
Launched : 2016
JSM Anatomy and Physiology
ISSN : 2573-1262
Launched : 2016
JSM Dental Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1548
Launched : 2016
Annals of Emergency Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1017
Launched : 2016
Annals of Mens Health and Wellness
ISSN : 2641-7707
Launched : 2017
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Health Care
ISSN : 2576-0084
Launched : 2018
Journal of Chronic Diseases and Management
ISSN : 2573-1300
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vaccines and Immunization
ISSN : 2378-9379
Launched : 2014
JSM Heart Surgery Cases and Images
ISSN : 2578-3157
Launched : 2016
Annals of Reproductive Medicine and Treatment
ISSN : 2573-1092
Launched : 2016
JSM Brain Science
ISSN : 2573-1289
Launched : 2016
JSM Biomarkers
ISSN : 2578-3815
Launched : 2014
JSM Biology
ISSN : 2475-9392
Launched : 2016
Archives of Stem Cell and Research
ISSN : 2578-3580
Launched : 2014
Annals of Clinical and Medical Microbiology
ISSN : 2578-3629
Launched : 2014
JSM Pediatric Surgery
ISSN : 2578-3149
Launched : 2017
Journal of Memory Disorder and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-319X
Launched : 2016
JSM Tropical Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2578-3165
Launched : 2016
JSM Head and Face Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3793
Launched : 2016
JSM Cardiothoracic Surgery
ISSN : 2573-1297
Launched : 2016
JSM Bone and Joint Diseases
ISSN : 2578-3351
Launched : 2017
JSM Bioavailability and Bioequivalence
ISSN : 2641-7812
Launched : 2017
JSM Atherosclerosis
ISSN : 2573-1270
Launched : 2016
Journal of Genitourinary Disorders
ISSN : 2641-7790
Launched : 2017
Journal of Fractures and Sprains
ISSN : 2578-3831
Launched : 2016
Journal of Autism and Epilepsy
ISSN : 2641-7774
Launched : 2016
Annals of Marine Biology and Research
ISSN : 2573-105X
Launched : 2014
JSM Health Education & Primary Health Care
ISSN : 2578-3777
Launched : 2016
JSM Communication Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3807
Launched : 2016
Annals of Musculoskeletal Disorders
ISSN : 2578-3599
Launched : 2016
Annals of Virology and Research
ISSN : 2573-1122
Launched : 2014
JSM Renal Medicine
ISSN : 2573-1637
Launched : 2016
Journal of Muscle Health
ISSN : 2578-3823
Launched : 2016
JSM Genetics and Genomics
ISSN : 2334-1823
Launched : 2013
JSM Anxiety and Depression
ISSN : 2475-9139
Launched : 2016
Clinical Journal of Heart Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7766
Launched : 2016
Annals of Medicinal Chemistry and Research
ISSN : 2378-9336
Launched : 2014
JSM Pain and Management
ISSN : 2578-3378
Launched : 2016
JSM Women's Health
ISSN : 2578-3696
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in HIV or AIDS
ISSN : 2374-0094
Launched : 2013
Journal of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
ISSN : 2333-6692
Launched : 2013
Journal of Substance Abuse and Alcoholism
ISSN : 2373-9363
Launched : 2013
JSM Neurosurgery and Spine
ISSN : 2373-9479
Launched : 2013
Journal of Liver and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2379-0830
Launched : 2014
Journal of Drug Design and Research
ISSN : 2379-089X
Launched : 2014
JSM Clinical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2373-938X
Launched : 2013
JSM Bioinformatics, Genomics and Proteomics
ISSN : 2576-1102
Launched : 2014
JSM Chemistry
ISSN : 2334-1831
Launched : 2013
Journal of Trauma and Care
ISSN : 2573-1246
Launched : 2014
JSM Surgical Oncology and Research
ISSN : 2578-3688
Launched : 2016
Annals of Food Processing and Preservation
ISSN : 2573-1033
Launched : 2016
Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy
ISSN : 2333-7095
Launched : 2013
JSM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ISSN : 2578-3572
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical Pathology
ISSN : 2373-9282
Launched : 2013
Annals of Cardiovascular Diseases
ISSN : 2641-7731
Launched : 2016
Journal of Behavior
ISSN : 2576-0076
Launched : 2016
Annals of Clinical and Experimental Metabolism
ISSN : 2572-2492
Launched : 2016
Clinical Research in Infectious Diseases
ISSN : 2379-0636
Launched : 2013
JSM Microbiology
ISSN : 2333-6455
Launched : 2013
Journal of Urology and Research
ISSN : 2379-951X
Launched : 2014
Journal of Family Medicine and Community Health
ISSN : 2379-0547
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pregnancy and Care
ISSN : 2578-336X
Launched : 2017
JSM Cell and Developmental Biology
ISSN : 2379-061X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Aquaculture and Research
ISSN : 2379-0881
Launched : 2014
Clinical Research in Pulmonology
ISSN : 2333-6625
Launched : 2013
Journal of Immunology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6714
Launched : 2013
Annals of Forensic Research and Analysis
ISSN : 2378-9476
Launched : 2014
JSM Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ISSN : 2333-7109
Launched : 2013
Annals of Breast Cancer Research
ISSN : 2641-7685
Launched : 2016
Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
ISSN : 2378-9409
Launched : 2014
Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders
ISSN : 2379-0822
Launched : 2014
JSM Burns and Trauma
ISSN : 2475-9406
Launched : 2016
Chemical Engineering and Process Techniques
ISSN : 2333-6633
Launched : 2013
Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology
ISSN : 2475-9430
Launched : 2014
JSM Allergy and Asthma
ISSN : 2573-1254
Launched : 2016
Journal of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
ISSN : 2334-2307
Launched : 2013
Annals of Sports Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2379-0571
Launched : 2014
JSM Sexual Medicine
ISSN : 2578-3718
Launched : 2016
Annals of Vascular Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-9344
Launched : 2014
JSM Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering
ISSN : 2333-7117
Launched : 2013
Journal of Hematology and Transfusion
ISSN : 2333-6684
Launched : 2013
JSM Environmental Science and Ecology
ISSN : 2333-7141
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cardiology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2333-6676
Launched : 2013
JSM Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine
ISSN : 2334-1815
Launched : 2013
Journal of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
ISSN : 2475-9473
Launched : 2016
JSM Ophthalmology
ISSN : 2333-6447
Launched : 2013
Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology
ISSN : 2333-7079
Launched : 2013
Annals of Psychiatry and Mental Health
ISSN : 2374-0124
Launched : 2013
Medical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ISSN : 2333-6439
Launched : 2013
Annals of Pediatrics and Child Health
ISSN : 2373-9312
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Pharmaceutics
ISSN : 2379-9498
Launched : 2014
JSM Foot and Ankle
ISSN : 2475-9112
Launched : 2016
JSM Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia
ISSN : 2378-9565
Launched : 2014
Journal of Addiction Medicine and Therapy
ISSN : 2333-665X
Launched : 2013
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research
ISSN : 2378-931X
Launched : 2013
Annals of Public Health and Research
ISSN : 2378-9328
Launched : 2014
Annals of Orthopedics and Rheumatology
ISSN : 2373-9290
Launched : 2013
Journal of Clinical Nephrology and Research
ISSN : 2379-0652
Launched : 2014
Annals of Community Medicine and Practice
ISSN : 2475-9465
Launched : 2014
Annals of Biometrics and Biostatistics
ISSN : 2374-0116
Launched : 2013
JSM Clinical Case Reports
ISSN : 2373-9819
Launched : 2013
Journal of Cancer Biology and Research
ISSN : 2373-9436
Launched : 2013
Journal of Surgery and Transplantation Science
ISSN : 2379-0911
Launched : 2013
Journal of Dermatology and Clinical Research
ISSN : 2373-9371
Launched : 2013
JSM Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN : 2373-9487
Launched : 2013
Annals of Nursing and Practice
ISSN : 2379-9501
Launched : 2014
JSM Dentistry
ISSN : 2333-7133
Launched : 2013
Author Information X